Asphalt Shingle Roofs

Scope Images
Asphalt shingles are installed over a synthetic underlayment
Asphalt shingles are installed over a synthetic underlayment
Scope

Properly select and install asphalt shingles when installing roofing on new construction or when repairing or replacing roofing on existing homes to minimize the risk of water intrusion due to shingles being damaged or blown off of the roof during high winds or hurricanes.

For new construction:

  • Seal the roof deck using one of the following three options, per the IBHS Fortified Hurricane and High Wind Standards:  
    • 1) install a self-adhered (peel and stick) membrane over the entire roof deck (recommend a #15 felt bond break between membrane and shingles);
    • 2) install a nominal 4-inch-wide roof deck flashing tape over all roof sheathing panel seams and cover with #30 felt or equivalent synthetic underlayment; or
    • 3) install a two-layer #30 felt underlayment system.
  • Install drip edge at eaves and rakes.
  • Install flashing at roof penetrations and roof-wall intersections, properly integrated with roofing and wall underlayment and coverings.
  • Install shingles and other roofing products that are high-wind rated based on the design wind speed for the location, per the requirements of the IBHS Fortified Home Hurricane and High Wind Standards. 
    • Consider impact-resistant shingles to help protect against damage by windborne debris and hail.
    • Consider solar reflective shingles for a cooler roof and energy savings in a warmer climate.
  • Install shingles in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions for high wind locations:
    • Use 6 nails per shingle.
    • Properly locate nails within the nailing zone of the shingle.
    • Drive nails properly (do not over drive or under drive). 
    • Do not use staples.
    • Install with hot-dip galvanized and/or stainless steel fasteners when the home is within 3,000 feet of salt or brackish water, as required by the IBHS Fortified Home program.
  • Apply continuous bands of asphalt roof cement beneath shingles and starter strips along eaves rakes, hips, ridges, and open valleys to enhance shingle securement.

For wildfire-prone areas,

  • Choose roofing materials that are fire-resistant or non-combustible Class A rated roof materials such as fiberglass reinforced asphalt shingles, fiber-cement shingles, galvanized metal underlaid with gypsum, slate, or concrete or clay tile with bird stopping.  
  • Choose a simple roof design that is less likely to trap embers.

For roof installation guidance for existing homes, see the Retrofit tab of this guide.

See the Compliance Tab for related codes and standards requirements, and criteria to meet national programs such as DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home program, ENERGY STAR Certified Homes, and Indoor airPLUS.

 

Description

During a hurricane, tornado, high winds, or hail storms, roof shingles can be damaged or blown off the roof, exposing the underlayment and the sheathing as the only protection against rain water (Figure 1). Exposed sheathing will eventually succumb to water damage. Unsealed joints or holes in the roof sheathing due to storm damage can allow rainwater to enter the building causing severe damage including saturation of insulation and ceiling drywall, potentially leading to collapsed ceilings and extensive damage to interior finishes and household contents.

High winds pulled the asphalt shingles and sheathing panels off this coastal home, although storm shutters protected the windows

Figure 1. High winds pulled the asphalt shingles and sheathing panels off this coastal home, although storm shutters protected the windows. (Home Innovation Research Labs 2020).

 

Roof installation and roof replacements are prime opportunities to upgrade shingles and shingle attachments to meet new standards and building codes and to decide if selecting an above-code strategy for an added level of protection is the right choice for the project. A roof replacement is also an opportunity to enhance roof deck attachment, roof framing connections, roofing underlayment, and flashing, as needed.

The Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety® (IBHS) offers guidance, best practices, and voluntary construction standards and programs for building in disaster-prone areas including hurricane and high-wind zones. The IBHS FORTIFIED HOME™ standards are designed to make homes more resilient and durable; guidance is available for new construction and existing homes in hurricane zones and high-wind zones. There are three levels of FORTIFIED Home: FORTIFIED Roof™ focuses on the roof; FORTIFIED Silver focuses on roof overhangs, opening protection, gable ends, and attached structures; and FORTIFIED Gold focuses on tying all components of the structure together. The IBHS FORTIFIED Roof™ program includes guidance on sealed roof decks, flashing, and shingle attachment. Note that even where roofing with enhanced wind resistance is not required by building code, roof resiliency can be improved by implementing IBHS recommendations.

Asphalt shingles properly selected and installed for high-wind applications are much less likely to be damaged or blown off the roof during a storm. Building codes require asphalt shingles to be rated for the local wind zone. Impact-resistant shingles are also available to help protect against damage by windborne debris and hail. Lighter colored asphalt shingles tend to last longer as they absorb less heat than the darker shingles and are less likely to be damaged by prolonged heat. ENERGY STAR certifies roofing products through its Cool Roof designation for reflectivity to reduce solar heat gain into the home.

Homes located in coastal high-wind areas including hurricane-prone regions (defined in the IRC as areas along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts where wind velocity is >115 mph, and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, and American Samoa) generally require enhanced attachment that can withstand greater wind speeds than the rest of the country. Ask the local building department if your house is in a high-wind or hurricane-prone region or if local requirements exceed those of the national code. Also see the wind map from the International Residential Code (IRC Figure R301.2(5)A), shown on the Climate tab.

Building codes require asphalt shingles, including hip and ridge shingles, to be tested and classified for wind resistance in accordance with ASTM D7158 or D3161 (see Table 1). Codes also specify the type and minimum size of fasteners (nails) and mandate that the number of fasteners is per manufacturer installation instructions but not less than four fasteners per strip shingle. Local jurisdictions may also require specific approval for roofing products (e.g., ridge vents tested and labeled to show resistance to water intrusion) or specific installation enhancements.

Table 1. Shingle Wind Testing Standard for Various Design Wind Speeds. (Source: IBHS Fortified Home 2019).

ASCE 7-05 Wind Speed (Vasd)

ASCE 7-10/7-16 Wind Speed (Vult)

Shingle Wind Testing Standard/Classification

100 MPH

129 MPH

ASTM D3161 (Class F) or ASTM D7158
(Class G or H)1

110 MPH

142 MPH

120 MPH

155 MPH

130 MPH

168 MPH

ASTM D3161 (Class F) or ASTM D7158
(Class H)1

140 MPH

180 MPH

150 MPH

194 MPH

1. The standard calculations contained in ASTM D7158 assume Exposure Category B or C and a building height of 60 ft or less. Additional calculations are required for conditions outside of these assumptions.

Generally, each shingle strip should be installed with six nails in high-wind areas and the location of the fasteners on the shingle is also important for a durable installation (see Figure 2). Use nails, properly driven, instead of staples. Apply dabs or continuous bands of asphalt roof cement beneath shingles along eaves, rakes, hips, and ridges to enhance shingle securement. (This may be required in some jurisdictions.)

Many shingle manufacturers rate their entire product line as Class H or F (per Table 1) for all shingle types including strip (3-tab), dimensional (architectural/laminate), and premium (luxury) shingles.

Manufacturers now offer shingles that are impact-rated in accordance with UL 2218 (Class 1 through 4, with 4 being the highest rating) and known as SBS polymer-modified asphalt shingles. The rubberizing aspects of the SBS polymers also improve granule adhesion, tear strength, nail pull resistance, and cold flexibility. IBHS testing has demonstrated that asphalt shingles fabricated using SBS polymer-modified asphalt consistently perform better than standard shingles. The IBHS Fortified Home Hail Supplement and Impact Resistance Test Protocol requires that asphalt shingles be ranked Good or Excellent for the roof to qualify for program certification. See the IBHS Fortified Home high Wind Standards 2015 and the IBHS Fortified Home Hail Supplement.

For areas prone to wildfires, asphalt shingles are generally considered a fire-resistant roof covering. Roof coverings have fire classifications of Class A, Class B, or Class C, or are unclassified. Class A have the highest resistance to fire and unclassified have the least. Class A, B, and C roofing must be tested in accordance with UL 790 (Fire Tests of Roof Coverings) or ASTM E108 (Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings).  Most asphalt shingle roofs have a Class A fire rating and do not require a noncombustible roof deck or fire-resistant underlayment; that is the asphalt shingles provide a “stand-alone” Class A fire rating.  Other Class A roof materials include fiberglass reinforced asphalt shingles, fiber-cement shingles, galvanized metal underlaid with gypsum, slate, or tiles with bird stopping.  Roofs are very susceptible to embers in a wind-driven fire.  A simple roof form such as a hip or straight gable is best. Complicated roofs with intersecting planes and valleys form dead air pockets and areas where air currents eddy and can trap burning embers (Colorado State Forest Service 2012) . 

Asphalt shingles should only be installed on roof slopes of 2 in 12 or greater. For roof slopes from 2 in 12 up to 4 in 12, double underlayment application is required.

Locations of Fasteners for Asphalt Shingles in High-Wind Areas

Figure 2. Locations of Fasteners for Asphalt Shingles in High-Wind Areas. (Source: FEMA 2019).

. Incorrect location of fasteners in an asphalt roof shingle
Figure 3. Incorrect location of fasteners in an asphalt roof shingle. (FEMA 2019).

How to Install Asphalt Shingles for New Construction:

  1. Install the roof deck using fasteners nailed as required to meet current requirements for nail type, size, and spacing.
  2.  Seal the seams in the roof sheathing using tape, roof membrane, or synthetic underlayment. If tape, then cover decking with underlayment. (See the Roof Deck Sheathing and Sealing Guide and the IBHS Fortified Hurricane Technical Summary, New Construction.
  3. Properly flash all roof penetrations and at roof-wall intersections.
  4. Install drip edge at eaves and rakes.
  5. Select high-wind-rated shingles (see Compliance tab for more detail) and familiarize yourself with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. There are three major categories of asphalt shingles - strip shingles, dimensional shingles, and luxury shingles. They vary in aesthetic value, cost, durability (warranty), and installation technique, including laying and nailing pattern. Although all shingles may have some commonality for application, each type will have specific installation features. Different layouts are used for different types of shingles.
  6. Install the starter strip at the eave and rake and secure with nails. (See Figure 4 and Figure 5.) Use a self-adhered starter strip or embed the strip in roofing cement for sealing. (See the guide Roof Edge Protection.)
  • The starter strip is usually packaged as two pieces per shingle that need to be separated in the middle.
  • The self-adhesive seal strip at the starter strip should face up and be positioned toward the eave edge (or toward the rake edge for starter strips at the rake). The adhesive seal strip bonds to the shingle above it, sealing them together and reducing the chance of wind damage and water infiltration.
  • The starter strip should overhang ¼ to ¾ inches past the drip edge for drainage.
  • The starter strip at the rake should overlap 3 inches with the starter strip at the eave.
  • Starter strips should be nailed 2 to 3 inches up from the bottom of the eave.
  1. Install the next course of asphalt shingles on top of the starter strip according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Follow the same direction as the starter strip for installing shingles. (If the starter strip was installed left to right, install the shingles from left to right.) Generally, six nails are required to attach one strip of shingle to the roof deck. (See the manufacturer’s instructions for type and minimum nails required.)
  • One of the common errors in shingle installation is improper nailing. High nails, low nails, overdriven nails, underdriven nails, angled nails, and inadequate nails are all examples of improper nailing. If pneumatic nailing guns are used, test and adjust the pressure until the nails are in line with the surface of the shingle and not underdriven or overdriven.
Roofing nails should be driven in straight and flush, not overdriven, underdriven, or angled
Figure 4. Roofing nails should be driven in straight and flush, not overdriven, underdriven, or angled. (FEMA 2019).

 

  1. If the edge of the roof lies on the roof-wall intersection, properly install the step or continuous flashing and integrate it with the underlayment and shingles. See the Step and Kickout Flashing guide for detailed flashing steps.
  2. Install ridge cap shingle along the roof ridge. See Figure 5.
  3. Integrate shingles with roof penetration flashings while installing the shingles. See Flashing of Penetrations in Existing Roofs for more detail.
Asphalt shingle installation at roof ridges, hips, eaves, and rakes
Figure 5. Asphalt shingle installation at roof ridges, hips, eaves, and rakes. (FEMA 2018).

 

Ensuring Success

Roofing should be inspected and installed by a professional roofing contractor, licensed and insured, to ensure that the roof system provides robust protection from rainwater, including ice barriers where required, and that proper flashing is in place.

A building permit may be required for a roof replacement. Ask the local building department. For disaster resistance, comply with the roofing requirements defined by IBHS Fortified Home.

In wildfire-prone areas, use asphalt shingles that are Class A rated.

Climate

Building codes require asphalt shingles to be rated for the local wind zone. Homes located in coastal high-wind areas including Hurricane-Prone Regions (see Figure 1) generally require enhanced attachment that can withstand greater wind speeds than the rest of the country. Ask the local building department if your house is in a high-wind or hurricane-prone region or if local requirements exceed those of the national code.

Wind Regions

Figure 1. Wind Regions. (International Residential Code 2018).

 

The Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety® (IBHS) offers guidance, best practices, and voluntary construction standards and programs for building in disaster-prone areas including hurricane and other high-wind zones. The IBHS FORTIFIED Roof™ program includes guidance on sealed roof decks, flashing, and shingle attachment. 

Requirements for Compliance with the IBHS Fortified Roof program:

Installation of Starter Strips at Eaves (Drip Edge Installed Over Underlayment): Manufacturer-approved starter strips at eaves shall be set in a minimum 8-in.-wide strip of compatible flashing cement. Maximum thickness of flashing cement shall be ⅛ in. Fasten starter strips parallel to the eaves along a line above the eave line according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Position fasteners to ensure they will not be exposed under the cutouts in the first course. Starter strips and shingles must not extend more than ¼ in. beyond the drip edge.

Approved Option: Shingle manufacturer-approved ASTM D1970 fully adhered (peel-and-stick) starter strip with asphaltic adhesive strip at eave-installed so that the starter strip adheres to and covers the drip edge top surface.

Installation of Shingles at Rakes (Drip Edge Installed Over Underlayment): Install shingles at rakes set in a minimum 8-in.-wide strip of compatible flashing cement. Maximum thickness of flashing cement shall be ⅛ in. Fasten shingles at the rakes according to the manufacturer’s specifications.

Optional Installation of Starter Strips at Rakes (Drip Edge Installed Over Underlayment): Manufacturer-approved starter strips at rakes shall be set in a minimum 8-in.-wide strip of compatible flashing cement. The maximum thickness of the flashing cement shall be ⅛ in. Fasten starter strips parallel to the rakes according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Position fasteners to ensure they will not be exposed. Starter strips and shingles must not extend more than ¼ in. beyond the drip edge.

Approved Option: Shingle manufacturer-approved ASTM D1970 fully adhered (peel-and-stick) starter strip with asphaltic adhesive strip at rake-installed so that the starter strip adheres to and covers the drip edge top surface.

Attachment of Shingles at Intersections and Valley: Shingles installed at all intersections and both sides of open valleys shall be set in a minimum 8-in.-wide strip of flashing cement. Maximum thickness of flashing cement shall be ⅛ in. Cut side of closed valleys shall be set in a minimum 2-in.-wide, ⅛-in.- thick strip of flashing cement. Woven valleys to be according to the manufacturer’s specifications.

See Hurricane Technical Summary by the IBHS Fortified Home program for additional information.

The roofing and wall cladding are more likely to be damaged or lost in hurricane-prone regions and other high-wind areas, leaving flashing and underlayment exposed and more susceptible to wind and water intrusion.  Selection of high wind-rated asphalt shingles is required in high wind and hurricane regions. Proper installation of shingles is even more important in these areas to protect against storm damage.

The International Residential Code 2018 requires an ice barrier to be installed in areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves. The ice barrier should consist of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together, or a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen, and should extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point not less than 24 inches inside the exterior wall line of the building. If the slope of the roof is greater than 67%, the ice barrier should not be less than 36 inches measured along the slope from the eave edge of the building.

In wildfire-prone areas, use asphalt shingles that are Class A rated.

Videos
Publication Date
Author(s)
Guertin
Organization(s)
Fine Homebuilding
Description
Video presentation explaining proper roof membrane and shingle installation, including key weak points where moisture can get in during a disaster weather event.
Publication Date
Description
Video discussing wind-resistant roof types and providing recommendations on how to choose the right roof type for your home per FLASH Strong Home guidelines.
Publication Date
Description
Video showing how-to's for wind and water-resistant roofs to comply with FLASH Strong Home guidelines.
Publication Date
Author(s)
Guertin
Organization(s)
Fine Homebuilding
Description
Video presentation describing steps to properly install roofs and shingles in high wind zones.
Publication Date
Author(s)
National Fire Protection Association
Organization(s)
NFPA
Description
Video from National Fire Protection Association looking into construction differences of homes that survived fires versus those that did not. Part 1 of 2.
CAD

Compliance

The Compliance tab contains both program and code information. Code language is excerpted and summarized below. For exact code language, refer to the applicable code, which may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

2009, 2012, 20152018, and 2021 International Residential Code

Section R301 Design Criteria. Discusses provisions for constructing buildings and structures to safely support all loads including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind loads, and seismic loads, resulting in a system that provides a complete load path that meets the requirements for the transfer of loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to the foundation.

Section R302 Fire Resistant Construction. Describes fire-resistant construction of building components.

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies. Discusses requirements for roof assemblies.

Section R902 Fire Classification. Discusses fire classifications for Class A, B, and C roof covering materials and assemblies.

R905.2.2 Slope. Asphalt shingles shall be used only on roof slopes of two units vertical in 12 horizontal (17% slope) or greater. For roof slopes from two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17% slope) up to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33%t slope), double underlayment application is required…

R905.2.4 Asphalt Shingles. Asphalt Shingles shall comply with ASTM D3462.

Also see R905.2.4.1 Wind resistance of asphalt shingles, R905.2.5 Fasteners, R905.2.6 Attachment, R905.2.7 Ice Barrier, and R905.2.8 Flashing.

Section R905.3.8 Flashing. Flashing and counterflashing to be provided at the juncture of roof vertical surfaces per manufacturer’s instructions.  If metal, it cannot be less than 0.019 inch (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal. Valley flashing must extend at least 11 inches from the centerline each way and have a splash diverter rib not less than 1 inch high at the flow line formed as part of the flashing. Sections of flashing must have an end flap at least 4 inches.  For 3/12 roofs and greater, valley flashing must have a 3-ft wide underlayment of one layer of Type I underlayment running the full length of the valley, in addition to any other required underlayment. Metal valley flashing underlayment must be solid-cemented to the roofing underlayment for slopes less than 7/12 or be self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet in areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F.

Retrofit: 

2015 and 2018 IRC

Section N1107.1.1 Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs shall conform to the provisions of this code, without requiring the unaltered portions of the existing building to comply with this code. (See code for additional requirements and exceptions.)

Appendix J regulates the repair, renovation, alteration, and reconstruction of existing buildings and is intended to encourage their continued safe use.

 

2009, 2012, 2015, 2018, and 2021 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC)

Section 504 Class 1 Ignition-Resistant Construction

Section 504.2 Roof Assembly. Roofs shall have a roof assembly that complies with a Class A rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790. For roof assemblies where the profile allows a space between the roof covering and roof deck, the space at the eave ends shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or have one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 installed over the combustible roof deck.

Exceptions:

  1. Class A roof assemblies include those with coverings of brick, masonry or an exposed concrete roof deck.

  2. Class A roof assemblies also include ferrous or copper shingles or sheets, metal sheets and shingles, clay or concrete roof tile or slate installed on noncombustible decks or ferrous, copper or metal sheets installed without a roof deck on noncombustible framing.

  3. Class A roof assemblies include minimum 16 oz/sq. ft. (0.0416 kg/m2) copper sheets installed over combustible roof decks.

Note: 2009 and 2012 IWUIC do not mention compliance with ASTM E108 or UL 790 and do not include the list of exceptions.

Section 504.2.1 Roof valleys. Where provided, valley flashings shall be not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consisting of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 running the full length of the valley.

Section 505 Class 2 Ignition-Resistant Construction

Section 505.2 Roof Assembly. Roofs shall have a roof assembly that complies with not less than a Class A rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790, or an approved noncombustible roof covering. For roof assemblies where the profile allows a space between the roof covering and roof deck, the space at the eave ends shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or have one layer of cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 installed over the combustible roof deck. (2009-2018 IWUIC requires a Class B rating rather than Class A rating and only 2015-2021 IWUIC mentions compliance with ASTM E108 and UL 790.)

Section 505.2.1 Roof valleys. Where provided, valley flashings shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) (No. 25 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consisting of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 running the full length of the valley.

Section 506 Class 3 Ignition-Resistant Construction

Section 506.2 Roof assembly. Roofs shall have a roof assembly that complies with not less than a Class B rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790 or an approved noncombustible roof covering. For roof assemblies where the profile allows a space between the roof covering and roof deck, the space at the eave ends shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or have one layer of cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 installed over the combustible roof deck. (2009-2018 IWUIC requires a Class C rating rather than Class B rating and only 2015-2021 IWUIC mentions compliance with ASTM E108 and UL 790.)

Section 506.2.1 Roof valleys. Where provided, valley flashings shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) (No. 25 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consisting of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 running the full length of the valley.

Retrofit: 2009, 20122015, 2018, and 2021 IWUIC

Section 507.1 The roof covering on buildings or structures in existence prior to the adoption of this code that are replaced or have 25 percent or more replaced in a 12-month period shall be replaced with a roof covering required for new construction based on the type of ignition-resistant construction specified in accordance with Section 503.

 

NFPA 1144

5.3.1.1 Only listed roof coverings tested and rated as Class A in accordance with ASTM E108, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, or UL 790 Standard for Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, shall be used.

5.3.4 Eaves shall be enclosed with exterior fire-retardant-treated wood, ignition-resistant materials, noncombustible materials, or materials exhibiting resistance to wildfire penetration when tested to ASTM E2957-15 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Wildfire Penetration of Eaves, Soffits, and Other Projections.

5.3.7 Metal drip edge shall be installed at all rake and eave edges.

 

IBHS Fortified Home

The IBHS Fortified Home Hurricane Standard requires starter strips at a roof's eaves and rakes to be manufacturer-approved ASTM D1970 fully adhered (peel-and-stick) with asphalt adhesive strip. See the IBHS Fortified Home Hurricane Standard for more information on the installation of starter strips at eaves and shingles at roof edges, intersections, and valleys.

This Retrofit tab provides information that helps installers apply this “new home” guide to improvement projects for existing homes. This tab is organized with headings that mirror the new home tabs, such as “Scope,” “Description,” “Success,” etc. If there is no retrofit-specific information for a section, that heading is not included.

Existing Homes

The following information is specific to roof replacements for existing homes. The information presented in other tabs is still relevant for existing homes.

Scope

For a roof replacement:

  • Remove all existing roofing (shingles and underlayment)
  • Replace any damaged wood sheathing
  • Inspect the roof deck attachment fasteners and re-nail as required to meet current requirements for nail type, size, and spacing.

Description

How to Install Asphalt Shingles for Existing Roofs

When reroofing, the existing roof structure should be strong enough to support the additional load of the shingles. Ensure the surface of the roof is flat; sagging roofs could indicate structural problems.

1. Remove all existing roofing (shingles and underlayment) and replace any damaged wood sheathing.

2 Inspect the roof deck attachment fasteners and re-nail as required to meet current requirements for nail type, size, and spacing.

3. Seal the seams in the decking, install underlayment, and replace flashing around penetrations, at valleys, and at any roof-wall intersections as needed and integrate with new roof underlayment as described in the Description tab for new construction.

4. Select and install asphalt shingles following the same steps followed for new construction roofing. Integrate shingles with roof flashings. Install ridge cap shingles along the roof ridge. (See manufacturer’s instructions for pattern, nail size, and spacing, etc.)

More Info.

Access to some references may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

References and Resources*
Author(s)
Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety
Organization(s)
IBHS
Publication Date
Description
Guide describing the requirements by FORTIFIED Home™ for improving the home's resistance to high wind and hail.
Author(s)
Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety
Organization(s)
IBHS
Publication Date
Description
Report summarizing the requirements for strenghtening and protecting the roof, openings in the house, and creating a continuous load path to strengthen walls and foundation per the IBHS Fortified Homes Hurricane Standard for New Homes.
Author(s)
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Organization(s)
FEMA
Publication Date
Description
A factsheet from FEMA on ways to construct asphalt shingle roofs to be more resistant to high winds and hurricanes.
Author(s)
IBHS Fortified Home
Organization(s)
IBHS Fortified Home
Publication Date
Description
Website describing the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS)'s Fortified Home program which offers home builders standards and guidance for constructing and renovating homes for increased disaster resistance.
Author(s)
International Code Council
Organization(s)
ICC
Publication Date
Description
2018 edition of code for residential buildings that creates minimum regulations for one- and two-family dwellings of three stories or less, bringing together all building, plumbing, mechanical, fuel gas, energy and electrical provisions for one- and two-family residences.
Author(s)
Bueche,
Foley
Organization(s)
CSFS
Publication Date
Description
Wildfire construction guidelines from the Colorado State Forest Service focusing on site design and building materials to mitigate damage to homes in wildfire-prone areas.
Author(s)
CalFire
Organization(s)
State of California
Publication Date
Description
Webpage offering recommendations to homeowners and contractors for retrofitting a home to make it more resistant to wildfires.
*For non-dated media, such as websites, the date listed is the date accessed.
Contributors to this Guide

The following authors and organizations contributed to the content in this Guide.

Home Innovation Research Labs

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