Exterior Doors Are Impact Rated and Fire Rated

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Accordion-type hurricane shutters protect sliding glass doors from high winds and wind-borne debris.
Accordion-type hurricane shutters protect sliding glass doors from high winds and wind-borne debris.
Scope

Protect entry doors and sliding glass doors against wind pressures and windborne debris during hurricanes, wildfires, or severe storms by installing impact-rated doors or by installing impact-rated storm shutters or panels to protect the doors. In wildfire-prone areas, use doors with a minimum 20-minute fire rating and for glass doors, use multi-layered tempered glass.

  • Determine if protection for entry doors and sliding glass doors is required.
  • Determine the most suitable type of doors or protection products.
  • Install products in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and applicable building codes including any local requirements for specific product approvals. Installing impact-rated doors or providing doors with a storm protection covering is a requirement of the Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety® (IBHS) Fortified Home Hurricane Standard.
  • Inspect exterior doors and hardware periodically to ensure good working order, preferably before hurricane or wildfire season.

See the Compliance Tab for related codes and standards requirements, and criteria to meet national programs such as DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home program, ENERGY STAR Certified Homes, and EPA Indoor airPLUS.

Description

Door assemblies must be strong enough to withstand wind pressures acting on them and be fastened securely enough to transfer those wind pressures to the adjacent wall. Pressure failures of doors can allow glazing to fracture or glazing frames or supports to fail. Anchorage failures can allow the entire door to be ripped from the wall, as shown in Figure 1. Either type of failure results in the failure of the building envelope and allows wind and water to enter the building.

Anchorage failure in sliding glass doors.
Figure 1. Anchorage failure in sliding glass doors allowed the whole door to be pulled out by negative wind pressure (Source: FEMA 488 2005).

Installing impact-rated doors or providing doors with a storm protection covering is a requirement of the Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety® (IBHS) Fortified Home Hurricane Standard and IBHS Fortified Home High Wind Standard Silver designation. FEMA, as part of the Intermediate Mitigation Package, notes that all exterior entry doors should be protected from windborne debris and design wind pressure. At least one entry door should be operable from inside the living space if opening protection is in place. Entry doors should be protected by either protecting the existing door with an impact-resistant covering or providing an impact-resistant door (FEMA P-804, 2010, Wind Retrofit Guide for Residential Buildings).

Damage to glazing systems (windows) in doors can be prevented, or at least minimized, by using glazing or opening protection systems that have been designed to resist wind and windborne debris forces specified in the building code. Impact-resistant (i.e., debris-resistant) systems provide protection using laminated glass or polycarbonate glazing systems. The use of physical opening protection systems such as storm shutters or panels, fabric screens, or structural wood panels is also a common means of achieving protection for glazing. Impact-resistant doors and storm shutters and panels must be third-party tested and rated. Note that storm shutters and panels are typically not rated to reduce wind pressures on the doors they protect, so doors must always be installed to withstand wind pressures. Impact-resistant doors commonly include reinforced frames, tighter weatherstripping, and energy-efficient glass.

The unprotected glazing in this door was by broken by roof tiles dislodged by wind.
Figure 2. The unprotected glazing in this door was by broken by roof tiles dislodged by wind (Source: FEMA).
 

A very effective solution for protecting the glazing is impact-resistant glazing systems. Impact-resistant windows provide in-situ protection and require no human action or involvement after installation; the protection system is always in place and does not need to be installed prior to storm events. Further, these systems do not need to be closed, lowered, or installed like storm panels or shutter systems.

Another option is storm shutters, also known as hurricane shutters, which are permanently installed so they are always in place and ready to be closed. The primary types of storm shutters for doors are rolldown, accordion, and colonial shutters.

A third option, storm panels, are temporary coverings that are installed when needed then removed and stored, for example, in a garage or shed. Panel hardware must be corrosion resistant and permanently mounted on the house, using a combination of tracks, bolts, and wingnuts for quick installation. Storm panels are commonly constructed of corrugated steel, aluminum, or polycarbonate, or screens made of fabric.  

Regardless of the type of protection chosen, proper installation of the door, weatherstripping, and flashing is also critical to reduce water infiltration.

The International Residential Code (IRC) requires exterior building components and their attachments to be capable of resisting design wind-pressures. For some high-wind regions, the IRC requires wind design in accordance with other methods including the International Building Code (IBC) (2018 IRC R301.2.1). Homes located in coastal high-wind areas including Hurricane-Prone Regions, generally require enhanced attachment that can withstand greater wind speeds than the rest of the country. The IRC defines Hurricane-Prone Regions as areas along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts where design wind velocity is greater than 115 mph, and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. The IRC further requires that exterior glazed openings are protected using impact-resistant glass, shutters, or panels for new homes located in windborne debris regions, defined as regions within hurricane-prone regions where the design wind velocity is equal to or greater than 140 mph or 130 mph within 1 mile of the coast. (See the IRC wind map in the Climate tab.) Confirm with the local building department if the house is in a hurricane-prone or windborne debris region and if local requirements exceed those of the IRC.

The IRC contains specific requirements for the wind resistance of doors. Section R609.2 of the IRC requires that exterior doors be designed to resist the wind pressures specified in IRC Table R301.2(2). Table R301.2(2) lists positive and negative wind pressures for components and cladding for various locations within the building. Areas near roof and wall edges and areas near corners, where turbulence creates localized high wind pressures, must be designed for higher loads. IRC Table R301.2(2) is based on Exposure B conditions for buildings with a mean roof height of 30 feet or less. Table R301.2(2) pressures must be multiplied by factors listed in IRC Table R301.2(3) for different mean roof heights and exposures.

AAMA/WMDA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 (North American Fenestration Standard (NAFS)/Specification for windows, doors, and skylight) lists design test pressures of 15, 25, 30, and 40 psf. Doors used in areas where wind pressures are greater than 40 psf need to be tested per ASTM E330 (Standard Test Method for Structural Performance of Exterior Windows, Doors, Skylights and Curtain Walls by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference). For residential construction, local officials must ensure that products proposed are adequate to resist the component and cladding loads of Table R301.2(2). For engineered construction, the designer should specify wind pressures required for doors and should base them on component and cladding loads from either Chapter 6 of ASCE 7-05 or Chapter 16 of the IBC.

Substitute anchorage systems are allowed if they provide equal or greater anchoring performance as demonstrated by accepted engineering practice. IRC Figures R609.7.2(1) through R609.7.2(8) provide minimum anchorage details to anchor window and glass door assemblies to the main force-resisting system. The details require doors to be anchored in a fashion that adequately transfers loads from the doors to the adjacent walls.

In wildfire-prone areas, install fire-rated exterior doors or doors of noncombustible construction. Fire-rated doors are typically made of solid-core wood or metal. The International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) requires Class 1 and Class 2 ignition-resistant doors to be installed. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1144, "Standard for Reducing Structure Ignition Hazards from Wildland Fire," Section 5.7, states that exterior doors shall be solid-core wood no less than 1-3/4 inches (45 mm) thick, be constructed with noncombustible materials, or have a fire protection rating of no less than 20 minutes. The IWUIC requires windows within doors and glazed doors to be multilayered glazed panels made of tempered glass. Building codes already require tempered glass to be used in glass patio doors or other areas that are susceptible to human impact. Section 5.7 also states that windows within exterior doors shall be tempered glass, multilayered glazed panels, glass block, or have a fire-resistance rating of no less than 20 minutes. Windows screens should be installed and constructed using noncombustible mesh to minimize the entry of embers through open windows.

Install approved fire-rated doors between an attached garage and a home’s living space. The 2021 International Residential Code requires openings between the garage and residence to be equipped with solid wood doors no less than 1-3/8 inches (35 mm) thick, solid or honeycomb-steel doors no less than 1-3/8 inches (35 mm) thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors. These doors must be equipped with a self-closing or automatic closing device and be self-latching. 

For exterior trim that covers the opening between the door frame and the exterior wall, install noncombustible or fire-resistant material such as fire retardant-treated wood or fiber cement board.

How to Select and Install Exterior Doors

  1. Select outward-swinging doors to prevent strong winds from blowing the door open, because the door stop on the inside of the jamb provides more resistance strength than the latch mechanism alone.
  2. Where impact protection is required, select impact-resistant doors, panels, or shutters. Impact-resistant doors, panels, and shutters are rated and labeled in accordance with the following:
    1. ASTM E1996 (Standard Specification for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors, and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Windborne Debris in Hurricanes)
    2. ASTM E1886 (Standard Test Method for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors, and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Missile(s) and Exposed to Cyclic Pressure Differentials)
    3. AAMA 506 (Voluntary Specifications for Impact and Cycle Testing of Fenestration Products).
  3. In Florida’s High Velocity Hurricane Zone, doors, panels, and shutters must be tested and labeled in accordance with Testing Application Standard (TAS) 201 (Impact Test Procedures), TAS 202 (Criteria for Testing Impact and Non-Impact Resistant Building Envelop Components using Static Air Pressure), and TAS 203 (Criteria for Testing Products Subjected to Cyclic Pressure Loading) per the Florida Building Code.
  4. Use the manufacturer-recommended anchorage system or a substitute anchorage system that provides equal or greater anchoring performance as demonstrated by accepted engineering practice.
    1. When the space between the door frame and the wall’s rough opening is 1.5 inches or less, shims or bucks can be installed, and fasteners can extend from the door frame to the wall.
    2. When the space is greater than 1.5 inches, the bucks need to be securely fastened to the wall and the door. This requirement limits the shear length of fasteners to 1.5 inches and reduces the potential for bending failures in the fasteners.
  5. Install proper flashing around door as specified by manufacturer instructions. Protect flashing with overlapping house wrap or building paper. Use pan flashing to prevent damage to the subfloor.
  6. Install weather stripping on the exterior door to keep out wind-blown rain. In wildfire-prone areas, weather stripping can also help keep out embers and hot gasses. See Figures 3, 4, and 5 as examples.
  7. In wildfire-prone areas install fire-rated exterior doors made of solid-core wood or metal.
  8. Install approved fire-rated exterior doors between the home's living space and an attached garage. These doors must be equipped with a self-closing device and must be self-latching.
  9. For exterior trim that covers the opening between the door frame and exterior wall, install noncombustible or fire-resistant material such as fire-retardant-treated wood or fiber cement board.
Drip flashing at the door head and drip flashing with hook at the head help to keep out wind-driven rain.

Figure 3. Drip flashing at the door head and drip flashing with hook at the head help to keep out wind-driven rain. (Source: FEMA P-499 2010).

Threshold Sweep Flashing protects the door and helps to keep out wind-driven rain.

Figure 4. Threshold Sweep Flashing protects the door and helps to keep out wind-driven rain. (Source: FEMA P-499 2010).

For additional information, see the Building America Solution Center guides on the following topics:

    Ensuring Success

    Follow code requirements; see the Compliance tab. 

      Also see if local building codes have specific requirements or ask the local building department.

      For disaster resistance, comply with the requirements defined by the IBHS Fortified Home Program. The Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety® (IBHS) offers guidance, best practices, and voluntary construction standards and programs for building in disaster-prone areas including hurricane and high-wind zones. The IBHS FORTIFIED Home™ standard is designed to make homes more resilient and durable; guidance is available for New Construction and Existing Homes in Hurricane zones and High-Wind zones. There are three levels of FORTIFIED Home: FORTIFIED Roof™ focuses on the roof; FORTIFIED Silver focuses on roof overhangs, opening protection, gable ends, and attached structures; FORTIFIED Gold focuses on tying all components of the structure together. The IBHS FORTIFIED HOME program includes the following guidance and requirements for exterior doors:

      • All entry doors must be pressure and impact rated or protected by a system that is pressure and impact rated. At least one exterior entry door must be operable from inside the living space when opening protection is in place. The level of debris impact protection required for areas where the ASCE 7-05 design wind speed (Vasd) is greater than or equal to 110 mph and the ASCE 7-10 and ASCE 7-16 (Vult) design wind speed is greater than or equal to 130 mph is the large missile G test (9-lb 2x4 impacting end on at 50 ft/sec) as defined in ASTM E1996 and ASTM E1886 and AAMA 506.
      • All entry doors and entry door protection systems must be rated for the design pressures appropriate for the exposure category, design wind speed, door size, and door location on the building. Products must be tested, at a minimum, in accordance with International Residential Code (IRC) accepted standards (or with locally adopted standards, if they are more restrictive) and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
      Climate

      Exterior doors are more likely to be damaged or lost in hurricane-prone regions and other high-wind areas (Figure 1), leaving the house susceptible to wind and water intrusion. Proper installation is even more important in these locations to protect against storm damage. 

      In wildfire-prone areas, exterior doors should be fire rated.

       

      2018 IRC - International Residential Code for One and Two Family Dwellings
       
      Wind Region Terminology
      Hurricane-Prone Regions: Areas along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts where V>115mph, and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.
      Windborne Debris Regions: areas within hurricane-prone regions where the design wind velocity is equals or exceeds 140 mph or 130 mph within 1 mile of the coast.
      High-Wind Areas (not code defined): Generally where V>115mph including portions of Alaska

      Figure 1. U.S. Wind Regions. (Source: Figure R301.2(5)A 2018 IRC).

      Here is a summary of steps that can be taken to improve the storm resistance of exterior doors and doorways based on information from FEMA (FEMA P-762, 2009) and others.

      • All exterior doors on homes in hurricane areas should be pressure and impact rated or protected by a system that is pressure and impact rated, according to IBHS (2019).
      • Doors, door framing, and door hardware should be made of water-resistant, corrosion resistant materials.
      • Exterior doors should meet U-factor requirements for the home's climate zone, as required by local building codes.
      • For increased disaster resistance in coastal and high wind areas, install exterior doors to swing outward rather than inward. Weather stripping should be installed on the interior side of the door to minimize decay.
      • Doors should be properly flashed, weather stripped, air sealed, and set in pan flashings designed to resist the entry of wind and wind-driven rain.
      • Consider designing the home’s entry with a vestibule or double-doored entry. Construct the entry with durable water-resistant flooring.
      • Install water-resistant flooring at all entryways.
      • FEMA’s “Technical Fact Sheet No. 6.1: Window and Door Installation,” (FEMA P-499 2010) provides some best-practice approaches that can be taken to reduce water infiltration. Pan flashing, weather stripping, and threshold seals are discussed. The Solution Center guide Fully Flashed Window and Door Openings and the “Tech Note: Window and Door Flashing: Code Requirements and Best Practices” by Home Innovation Research Labs provide additional detailed instructions for installing window and door flashing.
      Videos
      Publication Date
      Description
      Video showing damage that can occur during high wind times from poor window and door installments that lead to a weak points in the home's envelope and how to fix these problems per FLASH Strong Homes guidelines.
      Publication Date
      Author(s)
      International Association of Certified Home Inspectors
      Organization(s)
      InterNACHI
      Description
      Video from the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors on how to inspect your home for wind resistance, including door and window impact ratings.
      CAD

      Compliance

      The Compliance tab contains both program and code information. Code language is excerpted and summarized below. For exact code language, refer to the applicable code, which may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

      2021 International Residential Code (IRC)

      Section R301.2.1 outlines the wind design criteria for construction of residences.

      Section R301.2.1.2 discusses the required protection for exterior glazed openings.

      Section R302 discusses fire-resistant construction.

      Section R302.5.1 Opening protection. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Other openings between the garage and residence shall be equipped with solid wood doors not less than 1-3/8 inches (35 mm) in thickness, solid or honeycomb-core steel doors not less than 1-3/8 inches (35 mm) thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors. Doors shall be self-latching and equipped with a self-closing or automatic-closing device.

      Section R609 prescribes performance and construction requirements for exterior windows and doors installed in walls.

      R609.6 Windborne debris protection. Protection of exterior windows, glass doors and doors with glass in buildings located in windborne debris regions shall be in accordance with Section R301.2.1.2. (See code section for additional requirements and exceptions.)

      2009, 2012, 2015, 2018, and 2021 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC)

      Section 504 Class 1 Ignition-Resistant Construction.

      Section 504.8 Exterior glazing. Exterior windows, window walls and glazed doors, windows within exterior doors, and skylights shall be tempered glass, multilayered glazed panels, glass block or have a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes.

      Section 504.9 Exterior doors. Exterior doors shall be approved noncombustible construction, solid core wood not less than 1-3/4 inches thick (44 mm), or have a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Windows within doors and glazed doors shall be in accordance with Section 504.8.

      Section 505 Class 2 Ignition-Resistant Construction.

      Section 505.8 Exterior glazing. Exterior windows, window walls and glazed doors, windows within exterior doors, and skylights shall be tempered glass, multilayered glazed panels, glass block or have a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes.

      Section 505.9 Exterior doors. Exterior doors shall be approved non-combustible construction, solid core wood not less than 1-3/4 inches thick (45 mm), or have a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Windows within doors and glazed doors shall be in accordance with Section 505.8.

      National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1144, Standard for Reducing Structure Ignition Hazards from Wildland Fire 

      Section 5.7 states that exterior doors shall be solid-core wood no less than 1-3/4 inches (45 mm) thick, be constructed with noncombustible materials, or have a fire protection rating of no less than 20 minutes. Exterior windows, windows within exterior doors, and skylights shall be tempered glass, multilayered glazed panels, glass block, or have a fire-resistance rating of no less than 20 minutes. Windows screens should be installed and constructed using noncombustible mesh to minimize the entry of embers through open windows. 

      Retrofit: 

      2009, 2012, 20152018, and 2021 IRC

      Section N1101.3 (Section N1107.1.1 in 2015 and 2018, N1109.1 in 2021 IRC). Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs shall conform to the provisions of this code, without requiring the unaltered portions of the existing building to comply with this code. (See code for additional requirements and exceptions).

      Appendix J regulates the repair, renovation, alteration, and reconstruction of legally existing buildings and is intended to encourage their continued safe use. Note that provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

      This Retrofit tab provides information that helps installers apply this “new home” guide to improvement projects for existing homes. This tab is organized with headings that mirror the new home tabs, such as “Scope,” “Description,” “Success,” etc. If there is no retrofit-specific information for a section, that heading is not included.

      Existing Homes

      The information provided for doors installed in new homes also applies to retrofitting of doors installed in existing homes.

      More Info.

      Access to some references may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

      References and Resources*
      Author(s)
      Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety
      Organization(s)
      IBHS
      Publication Date
      Description
      Guide describing the requirements by FORTIFIED Home™ for improving the home's resistance in severe thunderstorms, straight-line wind events, and high winds at the outer edges of tornadoes.
      Author(s)
      Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety
      Organization(s)
      IBHS
      Publication Date
      Description
      Guide describing the requirements by FORTIFIED Home™ for improving the home's resistance in severe thunderstorms, straight-line wind events, and high winds at the outer edges of tornadoes.
      Author(s)
      Federal Emergency Management Agency
      Organization(s)
      FEMA
      Publication Date
      Description
      A guide aiming to assist local officials and community decision makers in coastal areas in adopting and implementing sound mitigation measures to lower building natural disaster vulnerability.
      Author(s)
      Kapur,
      Mahadevia,
      Park,
      Passman,
      Perotin,
      Reeder,
      Seitz,
      Sheldon,
      Tezak
      Organization(s)
      FEMA
      Publication Date
      Description
      Report providing guidance on how to improve the wind resistance of existing residential buildings in Mississippi and across the Gulf Coast.
      Author(s)
      American Architectural Manufacturers Association
      Organization(s)
      American Architectural Manufacturers Association
      Publication Date
      Description
      Standard covering requirements for single and dual windows, single and dual side-hinged door systems, sliding doors, tubular daylighting devices, and unit skylights for new construction and replacement applications.
      Author(s)
      Bueche,
      Foley
      Organization(s)
      CSFS
      Publication Date
      Description
      Wildfire construction guidelines from the Colorado State Forest Service focusing on site design and building materials to mitigate damage to homes in wildfire-prone areas.
      *For non-dated media, such as websites, the date listed is the date accessed.
      Contributors to this Guide

      The following authors and organizations contributed to the content in this Guide.

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