Clay or Concrete Tile Roofs

Scope Images
Typical Concrete Tile Roofs in Florida
Typical Concrete Tile Roofs in Florida
Scope

This guide provides an overview of clay and concrete tile roofing with a focus on installation considerations for homes in coastal high-wind areas. Properly select and install clay or concrete tiles to minimize the risk of damage from high winds, wildfire, insect infestation, and water intrusion due to the tiles being damaged or blown off the roof during a storm.

For new roof construction:

  • Ensure that the underlayment attachment and tile attachment meet the requirements of the site design wind speed and exposure category, as recommended by the IBHS Fortified Hurricane and High Wind Standards.
  • Seal the roof deck using one of the following three options, per the IBHS Fortified Hurricane and High Wind Standards:
  1. Install a self-adhered (peel and stick) membrane over the entire roof deck (recommend a #15 felt bond break between membrane and shingles).
  2. Install a nominal 4-inch-wide roof deck flashing tape over all roof sheathing panel seams and cover with #30 felt or equivalent synthetic underlayment.
  3. Install a two-layer #30 felt underlayment system. (All three are recommended best practice.)
  • Install drip edges at eaves and rakes.
  • Install flashing at roof penetrations and wall-intersections.
  • Install clay or concrete roof tiles and other roofing products that are rated for the local wind zone and meet any local specific approval requirements. Ensure roofing assemblies are fire rated as required in wildfire regions. Install impact-resistant tiles to help protect against damage by hail.
  • Install clay or concrete roof tiles in accordance with manufacturer’s installation instructions, applicable building codes, required product approvals, and best practices.

For wildfire-prone areas,

  • Choose roofing materials that are fire-resistant or non-combustible Class A rated roof materials such as fiberglass reinforced asphalt shingles, fiber-cement shingles, galvanized metal underlaid with gypsum, slate, or concrete or clay tile with bird stopping.  
  • Choose a simple roof design that is less likely to trap embers.

See the Compliance Tab for related codes and standards requirements, and criteria to meet national programs such as DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home program, ENERGY STAR Certified Homes, and Indoor airPLUS.

Description

During a hurricane, tornado, high winds, or hailstorms, clay or concrete roof tiles can be damaged or blown off the roof, exposing the underlayment, flashing, and sheathing as the only protection against rainwater. Exposed sheathing will eventually succumb to water damage. Unsealed joints or penetrations in the roof sheathing or storm damage can allow rainwater to enter the building causing severe damage, including saturation of insulation and ceiling drywall, potentially leading to collapsed ceilings and extensive damage to interior finishes and household contents. Although clay and concrete tiles are durable, they are vulnerable to breakage from windborne debris. If a tile is broken, debris from the tile can impact other tiles, which can lead to a progressive cascading failure. See Figure 1.

Wrong - This tile roof was damaged by high winds.

Figure 1. Storm Damaged Tile Roof. (Source: FEMA).

Clay or concrete roof tiles that are selected and installed for high-wind applications are much less likely to be damaged or blown off the roof during a storm. Impact-resistant tiles are also available to help protect against damage by windborne debris and hail. Building codes require roofing to be rated for the local wind zone. Homes located in coastal high-wind areas including hurricane-prone regions (defined in the International Residential Code (IRC) as areas along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts where wind velocity is >115 mph, and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa) generally require products and attachments that can withstand greater wind speeds than the rest of the country. (See the wind map from the IRC on the Climate tab). A roof replacement is an opportunity to enhance roof deck attachment, roof framing connections, roofing underlayment, and flashing as needed to meet new standards and building codes.

Traditionally, tiles were made from clay or terra cotta, but modern tiles are often made from molded, tinted concrete. Clay and concrete roof tiles are available in a wide variety of colors, styles, and profiles (e.g., round, curved, flat, interlocking). Tiles are heavy, approximately three times heavier than asphalt roofing, so roof framing and sheathing must be structurally adequate to support the weight. (If replacing asphalt shingles, consult with an engineer to see if structural reinforcement is necessary). The heavy tiles do provide greater thermal mass that can help to regulate indoor temperatures in hot climates. Tiles are impervious to rot and insect damage. Although durable, tiles can be brittle and susceptible to breakage from a heavy impact such as falling tree branches (Figure 2). Tile roofing, particularly clay, is relatively expensive, but also has a long life expectancy that can exceed 100 years.

Wrong – These clay roof tiles were dislodged by high winds due to inadequate anchorage.

Figure 2. These clay roof tiles were dislodged by high winds due to inadequate anchorage. (Source: FEMA P-762). 

The International Residential Code (IRC) specifies minimum requirements for installing clay and concrete tile roofing (2018 IRC R905.3). Note that local requirements may exceed the IRC requirements and may require specific product approvals.

  • Deck requirements: tiles must be installed only over solid sheathing or spaced structural sheathing boards.
  • Deck slope: minimum roof slope 2.5 in 12; for roof slopes from 2.5 in 12 to 4 in 12, two layers of underlayment are required.
  • Underlayment: type, application, and attachment provisions (R905.1.1).
  • Clay roof tile must comply with ASTM C1167.
  • Concrete roof tile must comply with ASTM C1492.
  • Fasteners: nails must be corrosion resistant, minimum 11-gauge, 5/16-in. head, sufficient length to penetrate through the deck or ¾-in. into the deck; attaching wire minimum 0.083-in.; perimeter fastening areas include three tile courses but not less than 36 inches from either side of hips or ridges and edges of eaves and gable rakes.
  • Application: in accordance with this section and the manufacturer’s installation instructions; perimeter tiles minimum one fastener per tile regardless of slope; in accordance with manufacturer’s installation instructions in areas where the design wind speed is greater than 130 mph and on buildings where the roof is more than 40 feet above grade; in areas subject to snow minimum two fasteners per tile; in other areas, attach in accordance with IRC Table R905.3.7.
  • Flashing: requirements are specific to tile roofing (IRC R905.3.8).

Clay and Concrete Tile Attachment Table

Table 1. Clay and Concrete Tile Attachment. (IRC 2018)

Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety® (IBHS) offers guidance, best practices, and voluntary construction standards and programs for building in disaster-prone areas including hurricane and high-wind zones. The IBHS Fortified Home™ standard is designed to make homes more resilient and durable; guidance is available for new construction and existing homes in hurricane zones and high-wind zones. There are three levels of IBHS Fortified Home: Fortified Roof™ focuses on the roof; Fortified Silver focuses on roof overhangs, opening protection, gable ends, and attached structures; Fortified Gold focuses on tying all components of the structure together. The IBHS Fortified Roof™ program includes guidance on sealed roof decks, flashing, and shingle attachment. The IBHS Fortified Home Hail Supplement to its High-Wind Standard requires clay and concrete tiles to meet class 4 impact rating and the Fortified Home Hurricane and Fortified Home High-Wind standards require them to meet the requirements of the site design wind speed and exposure category in compliance with the International Residential Code. Note that even where roofing with enhanced wind resistance is not required by building code, roof resiliency can be improved by implementing above-code best practices recommended by the IBHS programs.

The Fortified Home Hail Supplement requires clay and concrete roof tiles to meet a Class 4 impact rating when tested in accordance with FM 4473. FM 4473 is a test standard used to evaluate the impact resistance of rigid roof covering materials. The test involves firing ice balls at the tile; Class 4 is the highest rating and requires the tile to still be functioning following two impacts in the same spot with 2-inch ice balls.

For areas prone to wildfires, clay and concrete tiles are generally considered a fire-resistant roof covering. Roof coverings have fire classifications of Class A, Class B, or Class C, or are unclassified. Class A have the highest resistance to fire and unclassified have the least. Class A, B, and C roofing must be tested in accordance with UL 790 (Fire Tests of Roof Coverings) or ASTM E108 (Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings).  Some clay or concrete tiles require a noncombustible roof deck or fire-resistant underlayment for the roof assembly to qualify as Class A.  An example of a noncombustible roof deck is gypsum panels installed above a wood structural panel deck. Fire-resistance-rated underlayment products are recommended in all wildfire areas and may be required by local jurisdictions. 

Roofs are very susceptible to embers in a wind-driven fire.  A simple roof form such as a hip or straight gable is best. Complicated roofs with intersecting planes and valleys form dead air pockets and areas where air currents eddy and can trap burning embers (Colorado State Forest Service 2012). Clay tile designs with open ends must be filled with bird stop to keep embers from entering the opening and to keep out nesting birds or insects who could fill the openings with combustible debris.

How to Install Clay or Concrete Tiles for New Construction

Step 1: Install the roof deck using fasteners nailed as required to meet current requirements for nail type, size, and spacing.

Step 2: Seal the roof deck using one of the following three options, per the IBHS Fortified Hurricane and High Wind Standards, and in accordance with the product manufacturer installation instructions:

  • Install a self-adhered (peel and stick) membrane over the entire roof deck (recommend a #15 felt bond break between membrane and shingles)
  • Install a nominal 4-inch wide roof deck flashing tape over all roof sheathing panel seams and cover with #30 felt or equivalent synthetic underlayment
  • Install a two-layer #30 felt underlayment system.

See the IBHS Fortified Roof program for information about sealed roof decks and underlayment options.

Step 3: Install drip edge at eaves and rakes.

Step 4: Flash roof penetrations and roof-wall intersections.

Step 5: Install clay or concrete roof tiles.

The IBHS Fortified Home Hurricane Standard provides the following guidance and program requirements for installing clay and concrete roof tiles:

  • Tile systems and their attachments must meet the requirements of the site design wind speed and exposure category.
  • Tiles must be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s product approval for the site design wind speed, roof height, and Exposure Category.
  • The FRSA/TRI installation guideline, the Florida High Wind Concrete and Clay Tile Installation Manual (Fifth Edition Revised, FRSA/TRI 2012) provides additional guidance for installation incorporating ASCE 7-10 wind loads for mechanically attached tile.
  • Roof tiles may be installed with roof tile adhesives that are recognized and installed in accordance with an ICC-ES Evaluation Report, a Florida Product Approval, a Miami-Dade County Notice of Acceptance (NOA), or a Texas Department of Insurance (TDI) Evaluation Report.
  • Mortar-set tile or mortar-set hip and ridge ties are not permitted.
  • Hip and ridge boards or metal must be attached to the roof framing to resist the uplift pressure for the site design wind speed and exposure or in accordance with the tile manufacturer’s product approval.
  • Hip and ridge tiles must be secured to the hip and ridge boards or metal with mechanical fasteners and/or an approved roof tile adhesive.
  • ASCE 7-16 wind loads are not addressed in the Florida High Wind Concrete and Clay Tile Installation Manual (Fifth Edition Revised, FRSA/TRI 2012) guidelines. In jurisdictions that require ASCE 7-16 wind loads, follow the tile manufacturer installation guidance and product approvals for the design wind pressures and, if the roof tile is installed with adhesives, the adhesive manufacturer’s product approval for those wind pressures.
  • Tiles must be installed over minimum 15/32-in.-thick plywood and one of the acceptable sealed roof deck underlayment options.
Ensuring Success

Roofing should be inspected and installed by a professional roofing contractor to ensure that the roof system provides robust protection from rainwater and ice dams and that proper flashing is in place.

A building permit may be required for a roof replacement. Ask the local building department. For disaster resistance, comply with the roofing requirements defined by the IBHS Fortified Home Program.

Quality control personnel should always be present on the roof when installing clay or concrete tiles. Take maximum safety measures and precautions when working on the roof.

Ensure that the open ends of barrel-shaped tiles are closed up with bird stop to keep out nesting birds, bugs, and wildfire embers.

Climate

Building codes require tile roofing to be rated for the local wind zone. Homes located in coastal high-wind areas including Hurricane-Prone Regions (see Figure 1) generally require enhanced attachment that can withstand greater wind speeds than the rest of the country. Ask the local building department if your house is in a high-wind or hurricane-prone region or if local requirements exceed those of the national code.

Roofing and wall cladding are more likely to be damaged or lost in hurricane-prone regions and other high-wind areas, leaving flashing and underlayment exposed and more susceptible to wind and water intrusion. Selection of high wind- and impact-rated clay and concrete tile is required in high wind and hurricane regions. Proper installation of roof tiles is even more important in these areas to protect against storm damage.

International Residential Code 2018 requires an ice barrier to be installed in areas where there has been a history of ice forming along the eaves. The ice barrier should consist of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together, or a self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen, and should extend from the lowest edges of all roof surfaces to a point not less than 24 inches inside the exterior wall line of the building. If the slope of the roof is greater than 67%, the ice barrier should not be less than 36 inches measured along the slope from the eave edge of the building.

Wind Regions Map
Figure 1. U.S. Wind Regions. (Source: 2018 IRC, Figure R301.2(5)A).

The Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety® (IBHS) offers guidance, best practices, and voluntary construction standards and programs for building in disaster-prone areas including hurricane and other high-wind zones. The IBHS Fortified Roof™ program includes guidance on sealed roof decks, flashing, and roofing tile attachment. See additional details in the Compliance tab.

In wildfire prone areas, ensure that the open ends of barrel-shaped tiles are closed up  with bird stop to keep out nesting birds, bugs, and wildfire embers.

Videos
Publication Date
Description
Video discussing wind-resistant roof types and providing recommendations on how to choose the right roof type for your home per FLASH Strong Home guidelines.
CAD

Compliance

The Compliance tab contains both program and code information. Code language is excerpted and summarized below. For exact code language, refer to the applicable code, which may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

2009, 2012, 20152018, and 2021 International Residential Code

Section R301 Design Criteria. Discusses provisions for constructing buildings and structures to safely support all loads including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind loads, and seismic loads, resulting in a system that provides a complete load path that meets the requirements for the transfer of loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to the foundation.

Section R302 Fire Resistant Construction. Describes fire-resistant construction of building components.

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies. Discusses requirements for roof assemblies.

Section R902 Fire Classification. Discusses fire classifications for Class A, B, and C roof covering materials and assemblies.

Section 905.3 discusses provisions for clay and concrete roofing tiles.

R905.3.1 Deck requirements. Concrete and clay tile shall be installed only over solid sheathing or spaced structural sheathing boards.

R905.3.2 Deck slope. Clay and concrete roof tile shall be installed on roof slopes of 2.5 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25% slope) or greater. For roof slopes from 2.5 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25% slope) to four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33% slope), double underlayment application is required in accordance with Section R905.3.3.

See Sections R905.3.3 Underlayment, R905.3.4 Clay tile, R905.3.5 Concrete tile, R905.3.6 Fasteners, R905.3.7 Application, and R905.3.8 Flashings for specific requirements.

Retrofit: 2015, and 2018 IRC

Section N1107.1.1 Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs shall conform to the provisions of this code, without requiring the unaltered portions of the existing building to comply with this code. (See code for additional requirements and exceptions.)

Appendix J regulates the repair, renovation, alteration, and reconstruction of existing buildings and is intended to encourage their continued safe use.

 

2009, 2012, 2015, 2018, and 2021 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC)

Section 504 Class 1 Ignition-Resistant Construction

Section 504.2 Roof Assembly. Roofs shall have a roof assembly that complies with a Class A rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790. For roof assemblies where the profile allows a space between the roof covering and roof deck, the space at the eave ends shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or have one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 installed over the combustible roof deck.

Exceptions:

  1. Class A roof assemblies include those with coverings of brick, masonry or an exposed concrete roof deck.
  2. Class A roof assemblies also include ferrous or copper shingles or sheets, metal sheets and shingles, clay or concrete roof tile or slate installed on noncombustible decks or ferrous, copper or metal sheets installed without a roof deck on noncombustible framing.
  3. Class A roof assemblies include minimum 16 oz/sq. ft. (0.0416 kg/m2) copper sheets installed over combustible roof decks.

Note: 2009 and 2012 IWUIC do not mention compliance with ASTM E108 or UL 790 and do not include the list of exceptions.

Section 504.2.1 Roof valleys. Where provided, valley flashings shall be not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consisting of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 running the full length of the valley.

Section 505 Class 2 Ignition-Resistant Construction

Section 505.2 Roof Assembly. Roofs shall have a roof assembly that complies with not less than a Class A rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790, or an approved noncombustible roof covering. For roof assemblies where the profile allows a space between the roof covering and roof deck, the space at the eave ends shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or have one layer of cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 installed over the combustible roof deck. (2009-2018 IWUIC requires a Class B rating rather than Class A rating and only 2015-2021 IWUIC mentions compliance with ASTM E108 and UL 790.)

Section 505.2.1 Roof valleys. Where provided, valley flashings shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) (No. 25 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consisting of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 running the full length of the valley.

Section 506 Class 3 Ignition-Resistant Construction

Section 506.2 Roof assembly. Roofs shall have a roof assembly that complies with not less than a Class B rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790 or an approved noncombustible roof covering. For roof assemblies where the profile allows a space between the roof covering and roof deck, the space at the eave ends shall be firestopped to preclude entry of flames or embers, or have one layer of cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 installed over the combustible roof deck. (2009-2018 IWUIC requires a Class C rating rather than Class B rating and only 2015-2021 IWUIC mentions compliance with ASTM E108 and UL 790.)

Section 506.2.1 Roof valleys. Where provided, valley flashings shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) (No. 25 galvanized sheet gage) corrosion-resistant metal installed over a minimum 36-inch-wide (914 mm) underlayment consisting of one layer of 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced, nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D3909 running the full length of the valley.

Retrofit: 2009, 2015, 2018, and 2021 IWUIC

Section 507.1 The roof covering on buildings or structures in existence prior to the adoption of this code that are replaced or have 25 percent or more replaced in a 12-month period shall be replaced with a roof covering required for new construction based on the type of ignition-resistant construction specified in accordance with Section 503.

 

IBHS Fortified Home Hurricane Standards

Section 2.2.2.6.2 Clay and concrete tiles: Clay and concrete roof tile systems and their attachment must meet the requirements of the side design wind speed and exposure category. Clay and concrete roof tiles must be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s product approval for the site design wind speed, roof height, and Exposure Category…. Mortar-set tile or mortar set hip and ridge tiles are not permitted. Hip and ridge boards or metal must be attached to the roof framing to resist the uplift pressure for the site design wind speed and exposure or in accordance with the tile manufacturer’s product approval. Hip and ridge tiles must be secured to the hip and ridge boards or metal with mechanical fasteners and/or an approved tile adhesive. ASCE 7-16 wind loads are…approved for those wind pressures.

The minimum sheathing requirement for new clay or concrete tile roofs is 15/32-in. plywood. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and the Florida Roofing and Sheet Metal Contractors Association (FRSA) require not less than 15/32-in.-thick plywood or other decking material that is recognized in a code evaluation report for tile roof installations in high-wind areas. In addition, TRI and FRSA guidance calls for sheathing that is adequate to support the loads involved. The Fortified program has adopted a minimum of 15/32-in. plywood requirement for new construction that will have a clay or concrete tile roof cover, but tile manufacturer installation guidelines and evaluation reports may require a roof deck material greater than 15/32-in. plywood.

IBHS Fortified Home Hail Supplement

“Clay and Concrete Roof Tiles - Tile Impact-Resistance Requirements: FM 4473 Class 4 FM 4473 is a test standard administered by Factory Mutual Research that uses pure water frozen ice balls to evaluate impact resistance of new rigid roof covering materials (like concrete tile, clay tile, or slate). It involves firing the ice balls from a sling or air cannon at the roof covering product. A Class 4 rating requires the product to still be functional following two impacts in the same spot with 2-in. ice balls. Clay and concrete roof tiles must meet a Class 4 impact rating.”

IBHS Fortified Home High Wind Standards

“Clay and Concrete Tile Wind Resistance Requirement -  Clay and concrete roof tile systems and their attachments must meet the requirements for a Vasd = 110 mph design wind speed for Exposure B. Clay and concrete roof tiles must be installed in accordance with the FRSA/Tile Roofing Institute installation guidelines “Florida High Wind Concrete and Clay Roof Tile Installation Manual, Fifth Edition, FRSA/TRI 04-12,” for a design wind speed of Vasd = 110 mph (ASD) and Exposure B. Mortar-set tile or mortar-set hip and ridge tiles (System Three listed in FRSA/TRI Manual) are not permitted. Hip and ridge boards must be attached to the roof framing to resist the uplift pressure in accordance with Table 11 of the FRSA/TRI Manual using a minimum of Vasd = 110 mph Exposure B requirements. Hip and ridge tiles must be secured to the hip and ridge boards with mechanical fasteners and/or an approved roof tile adhesive. Note: The FRSA/Tile Roofing Institute installation guidelines, “Florida High Wind Concrete and Clay Roof Tile Installation Manual, Fifth Edition, FRSA/TRI 04-12,” is available for purchase from the Tile Roofing Institute or the Florida Roofing, Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractor’s Association.”

This Retrofit tab provides information that helps installers apply this “new home” guide to improvement projects for existing homes. This tab is organized with headings that mirror the new home tabs, such as “Scope,” “Description,” “Success,” etc. If there is no retrofit-specific information for a section, that heading is not included.

Existing Homes

For a roof replacement:

  • Remove all existing roofing (claddings and underlayment).
  • Replace any rotten or damaged wood sheathing.
  • Inspect the roof deck attachment fasteners and re-nail as required to meet current requirements for nail type, size, and spacing.

How to Install Clay or Concrete Tiles on Existing Roofs

Step 1: Assess the existing roof structure and roof deck to ensure they can support the load of clay or concrete tiles. A minimum of 15/32-inch-thick plywood sheathing is required for clay or concrete tiles. Assess the roof decking and fix any area that may show signs of rot or wear. Ensure the underlayment, eave protection and drip edges are adequately nailed and installed correctly.

Step 2: Install roof tiles following manufacturer’s instructions and instructions for new construction provided in this guide.

Step 3: Integrate the tiles with flashings at the roof-wall intersection and roof penetrations.

Step 4: Attach metal clips on the row of tiles at the eaves for both mechanically attached and adhesive foam attached tiles.

See the FEMA guide, FEMA P-804, Wind Retrofit Guide for Residential Buildings  

 (FEMA P-804 2010) for more information.  

More Info.

Access to some references may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

References and Resources*
Author(s)
Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety
Organization(s)
IBHS
Publication Date
Description
Report summarizing the requirements for strenghtening and protecting the roof, openings in the house, and creating a continuous load path to strengthen walls and foundation per the IBHS Fortified Homes Hurricane Standard for New Homes.
Author(s)
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Organization(s)
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Publication Date
Description
This factsheet presents recommendations to reduce wind and water infiltration damage to new and existing residential buildings.
Author(s)
Tile Roofing Institute,
Western States Roofing Contractors Association (WSRCA)
Organization(s)
Tile Roofing Institute,
Western States Roofing Contractors Association (WSRCA)
Publication Date
Description
Installation manual outlining proper installation practices, industry standards and the code requirements of roofing tiles.
Author(s)
Kapur,
Mahadevia,
Park,
Passman,
Perotin,
Reeder,
Seitz,
Sheldon,
Tezak
Organization(s)
FEMA
Publication Date
Description
Report providing guidance on how to improve the wind resistance of existing residential buildings in Mississippi and across the Gulf Coast.
Author(s)
IBHS Fortified Home
Organization(s)
IBHS Fortified Home
Publication Date
Description
Website describing the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS)'s Fortified Home program which offers home builders standards and guidance for constructing and renovating homes for increased disaster resistance.
Author(s)
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Organization(s)
FEMA
Publication Date
Description
A guide aiming to assist local officials and community decision makers in coastal areas in adopting and implementing sound mitigation measures to lower building natural disaster vulnerability.
*For non-dated media, such as websites, the date listed is the date accessed.
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The following authors and organizations contributed to the content in this Guide.

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