Skip to main content

Indoor Sprinklers for Fire Protection

    Scope
    Scope Images
    Image
    Fire suppression sprinklers can be set to activate only in the room where a fire is sensed.
    Scope

    Install indoor fire sprinklers to improve protection against injury and loss of life during a fire.  

    • Design and install a multipurpose plumbing system, which serves domestic water fixtures and indoor fire suppression sprinklers, or a stand-alone fire sprinkler system, to suppress fires within the home.
    • Install a “wet” sprinkler system within the home where the pipe can be maintained at or above 40°F. If the sprinkler piping will be routed through unconditioned space where temperatures may drop below 40°F (for example in a vented attic), install a stand-alone piping system (not connected to the home’s potable water supply) that contains an approved pre-mixed antifreeze solution or install a dry pipe system, where water only enters the pipes due to a loss of pressure when sprinklers are activated or a pre-action system, where water only enters the pipes when enabled by a supplemental detection system.
    • Ensure fire sprinkler coverage is in accordance with NFPA 13D, i.e., sprinklers are installed in all living areas, except as noted.
    • Space sprinkler heads in accordance with the minimum specified by the manufacturer but not less than 8 feet apart, as required by NFPA 13D.
    • Use CPVC piping or PEX tubing for fire sprinkler water distribution. Use metal piping where exposed.  
    • Install a backflow prevention device and water meter where required by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).
    • Install a pump if using a standalone non-pressurized storage tank or where municipal water pressures are inadequate.

    See the Compliance Tab for related codes and standards requirements, and criteria to meet national programs such as DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home programENERGY STAR Single-Family New Homes, and Indoor airPLUS.

    Description
    Description
    Fire suppression sprinklers can be set to activate only in the room where a fire is sensed.
    Figure 1. Fire suppression sprinklers can be set to activate only in the room where a fire is sensed (Source: Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition 2021).

    Indoor sprinklers for fire protection are a type of automated extinguishing system (AES) and are an important life safety measure in homes. If a fire occurs in a specific room of a home equipped with sprinklers, the heat-sensitive element in the sprinkler head in that room is triggered and releases water to suppress or restrict the growth of the fire, containing it to the room of origin. A report published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 2017) found that from 2010 to 2014, flame damage was confined to the room of origin in 97% of fires where sprinklers were present, compared to 74% of fires without a sprinkler system. The NFPA report also found that the civilian death and injury rates were 81% and 31% lower in homes with sprinklers, and the firefighter injury rate was 79% lower in homes with sprinklers. The presence of indoor sprinklers gives occupants more time to escape the home and helps manage the intensity of the fire until first responders arrive on the scene – increasing the survivability of the home and its occupants.

    Indoor fire sprinklers can also increase the wildfire resistance of a home and should be considered for homes in wildfire-prone areas, such as in the wildland urban interface (WUI). Interior sprinklers can be effective in containing interior home fires due to wildfires. Even if the exterior of the home does not ignite, firebrands, airborne debris, and convective heat can enter a home through vents, open or broken windows, and other openings, resulting in ignition from within. In addition, homes in the WUI are often located in remote areas far away from fire departments where firefighter response times are longer. Indoor sprinklers can help manage the fire until the firefighters arrive on the scene. 

    Although fire sprinkler systems are effective, they are not common in residential applications. According to the 2011 American Housing survey, only 5% of occupied housing units were outfitted with sprinklers. To increase the adoption of fire sprinklers in the residential sector, in 1975 the National Fire Protection Association introduced the Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes (NFPA 13D). The NFPA 13D standard is primarily focused on life safety. NFPA 13D was designed to be a cost-effective residential sprinkler solution. It reduces costs by allowing the omission of sprinklers in less-critical areas such as in small closets, bathrooms, and garages. A study by the Fire Protection Research Foundation (2013) Home Fire Sprinkler Cost Assessment-2013, found that the average cost to install sprinklers in new homes in 2013 was $1.35 per square foot of sprinklered area on average. To put this into perspective, the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB, Ford 2020) found that the average construction cost of a home in 2013 was $95 per square foot, which means that the installation of sprinklers in a new home was roughly only 1% of the total cost of construction. In addition, installation of fire sprinkler systems may potentially decrease the homeowner’s insurance rates, leading to increased savings over the life of the home.

    Classification of Fire Sprinkler Systems

    There are two general classifications for fire suppression sprinkler systems: standalone or multipurpose systems. As defined in NFPA 13D Chapter 3, standalone systems are fire sprinkler systems where above-ground piping for the fire sprinklers is separate from piping that serves potable water taps in the home. Some jurisdictions do not allow the use of standalone systems because they require more maintenance and can be shut off independently of the domestic water supply. NFPA 13D Chapter 3 defines multipurpose systems as piping systems that are intended to serve the home’s domestic water fixtures as well as the home’s fire protection needs. The network of piping in multipurpose systems serves both sprinkler heads and potable water fixtures in the home. NFPA 13D allows for both standalone and multipurpose systems, although multipurpose systems are generally recommended because they typically require less maintenance and tend to be more reliable. Any problems with pipes that supply the sprinkler system will likely be noticed because those same pipes serve other domestic plumbing fixtures in the home, which are likely to be used daily. Because they are connected to the home’s potable water supply, multipurpose systems must be approved by the local plumbing or health authority.

    NFPA 13D, Chapter 9, makes a distinction between “wet” and “dry” sprinkler systems. The majority of sprinkler systems are wet systems. A wet system is plumbed so that the piping always contains water up to the sprinkler heads. Wet systems are preferred to dry systems as the water is in the pipe ready to be immediately dispersed. Wet systems can be used if the sprinkler pipe can be maintained at or above 40°F.

    If the sprinkler piping will be routed through unconditioned space where temperatures may drop below 40°F (for example in a vented attic), NFPA 13D, Chapter 9, specifies that the sprinkler piping could be set up as a dry pipe system or a pre-action system. NFPA 13D defines a dry pipe system as a sprinkler system that employs automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of which (as from the opening of a sprinkler) permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve, and the water then flows into the piping system and out the opened sprinkler. NFPA 13D also defines a pre-action system as a sprinkler system that employs automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that contains air that might or might not be under pressure, with a supplemental detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers.

    As an alternative to a dry pipe or pre-action system, in locations where the sprinkler pipe cannot be maintained at or above 40°F, the sprinkler piping can be set up as a stand-alone system (one not connected to the home’s potable water supply) that contains an approved premixed antifreeze solution in the pipe fluid. This antifreeze solution will have a percentage of propylene glycol or glycerin.

    Fire Sprinkler Locations

    NFPA 13D requires fire sprinkler coverage of all areas within a dwelling, except where specifically exempted. NFPA 13D, Chapter 8.3, lists the following exceptions:

    • Bathrooms of 55 square feet or less.
    • Clothes and linen closets, and pantries of 24 square feet or less and where the walls and ceiling are surfaced with noncombustible or limited-combustible materials as defined in NFPA 220.
    • Garages, open attached porches, carports, and similar structures.
    • Attics with or without storage, penthouse equipment rooms, elevator machine rooms, concealed spaces dedicated to and containing only dwelling ventilation equipment, floor/ceiling spaces, elevator shafts, crawl spaces, and other unoccupiable spaces.
    • Covered, unheated projections of building entrances as long as the dwelling unit has another means of egress.
    • Closets in garages and exterior closets located on exterior balconies, exterior breezeways, and corridors accessed from outdoors where the closet does not have doors or unprotected penetrations into the dwelling unit. However, sprinklers should be installed in closets housing heating and/or air-conditioning equipment, washers and/or dryers, or water heaters, unless those closes are outside or in a garage as noted.
    • Ceiling pockets that meet the following conditions:
      • The total volume of all unprotected ceiling pockets in a compartment does not exceed 100 cubic feet.
      • The entire floor under the unprotected ceiling pocket is protected by the sprinklers at the lower ceiling elevation.
      • The interior finish of the unprotected ceiling pocket excluding decorative treatments is noncombustible or limited-combustible material.
      • Skylights not exceeding 32 square feet are permitted to have a plastic cover.

    Components of a Fire Sprinkler System

    Components of an indoor fire sprinkler system include the water supply, the pump, the trim, and the piping, as well as the sprinkler heads themselves.

    Sprinkler Heads

    Residential sprinkler heads come in four different styles: pendent, concealed, sidewall, and concealed sidewall as see in Figure 2. Residential sprinkler heads are rated at different temperatures that are typically limited to ordinary temperature rating (135°F to 170°F) or intermediate temperature rating (175°F to 225°F) as defined in NFPA 13D, Chapter 4.1. These temperature ratings determine the range in which the sprinkler heads will activate. Ordinary-rated sprinkler heads are used in rooms where the maximum ambient ceiling temperature does not exceed 100°F. Intermediate-rated sprinkler heads are used in rooms where maximum ambient ceiling temperatures are between 101°F and 150°F. Intermediate-rated heads may be used to adjust for specific heat sources, such as if exposed to direct sunlight, in an unventilated concealed space under an uninsulated roof or attic, or near other heat sources like fireplaces or furnaces.

    Four types of residential fire sprinkler heads: pendent, concealed, sidewall, and concealed sidewall.
    Figure 2. Four types of residential fire sprinkler heads: pendent, concealed, sidewall, and concealed sidewall (Source: The Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition 2021). 

    The minimum flow of water from a sprinkler head is determined by a set of calculations: the first involves the listed sprinkler discharge coefficient and minimum pressure and the second involves the floor area and discharge density. The discharge coefficient, or k-factor, varies depending on the orifice diameter of the sprinkler and is generally between K2.8 and K8.0 for residential style sprinklers. NFPA 13D, Chapter 8.1, specifies a minimum operating pressure of 7.0 psi, or the listed minimum pressure of the sprinkler head, whichever is greater. NFPA 13D, Chapter 10.1, specifies a minimum discharge density of 0.05 gpm/ft2 or the listed discharge density of the sprinkler head, whichever is greater.

    In the first calculation, the minimum flow, Q, is found by multiplying the k-factor, k in gpm/psi1/2, by the square root of the minimum pressure, P in psi, as shown in Equation 1. In the second calculation, the minimum flow, Q, is found by multiplying the minimum discharge density, D in gpm/ft2 and the area covered by the sprinkler, A in square feet, as shown in Equation 2. The minimum sprinkler flow should be the greater of the two calculations.

    Q(gpm) = k√P (Eqn. 1)
    Q(gpm) = D × A (Eqn. 2)

     

    Water Supply

    For automatic fire sprinkler systems, the water supply should also be automatic as specified in NFPA 13D, Chapter 6.1. The water supply can be either a pressurized tank, a non-pressurized tank with a pump, or the municipal water supply. Where a water storage tank is used, the minimum capacity of the tank should be determined based on the system’s water demand rate. Sprinkler systems that comply with NFPA 13D are designed to protect against a fire originating from a single location. It is assumed that only the sprinklers in a single location will activate. This means that the system water demand rate is not found by adding the flows for all sprinkler heads, but instead is determined by adding the required flow for up to two sprinkler heads serving a specific area. The minimum capacity of the storage tank as specified in NFPA 13D is the system demand rate multiplied by ten minutes, or for single-story dwellings less than 2,000 square feet, the minimum capacity of the storage tank can be reduced to the system demand rate multiplied by seven minutes. For example, if one large room in a 1,500-ft2 single-story home requires three sprinkler heads that have a required minimum flow of 26 gpm each, the system demand rate would equal 52 gpm and the minimum capacity of the storage tank can be calculated as 364 gallons (52 gpm x 7 minutes).  

    Pump

    For a non-pressurized system, or where the available water pressure is not enough to deliver the required flow at the necessary pressure, an electric pump shall be used. The pump does not have to be fire protection listed, but it must be listed by Underwriters Laboratory (UL) for electrical safety. The pump should be located no less than 1.5 inches off the floor, any means for disconnecting the pump shall be approved, and a test connection shall be provided downstream of the pump. Additionally, if the pump uses AC power, it shall be rated for 240 volts and wired in accordance with the National Electric Code (NFPA 70).

    Trim

    The schematic drawing in Figure 3 shows the minimum required plumbing fittings (trim) for a standalone system using municipal water. As seen in Figure 3, a minimum ½ inch drain connection and valve are required on the system side of the control valve to allow for maintenance, testing, and sprinkler replacement. Figure 4 shows the preferred plumbing trim and connections for a standalone system using municipal water. Some jurisdictions require a back-flow preventer or a check valve, although it is not required by NFPA 13D. Check with the local authority having jurisdiction to confirm if backflow prevention is required with your design. Pressure gauges on either side of the backflow prevention device allow for visual inspection of the functionality of the system. In addition, a waterflow alarm can be installed to alert the homeowners and local fire department that the fire sprinkler system has been triggered.

    The minimum required plumbing connections and trim for fire sprinkler connection to municipal water with a standalone wet sprinkler system
    Figure 3. The minimum required plumbing connections and trim for fire sprinkler connection to municipal water with a standalone wet sprinkler system (Source: NFPA 13D). 
    The preferred method for fire sprinkler connection to municipal water with a standalone, wet sprinkler system
    Figure 4. The preferred method for fire sprinkler connection to municipal water with a standalone, wet sprinkler system (Source: NFPA 13D). 

    Piping

    Sprinkler piping should be sized to provide the required system water demand rate as determined through hydraulic calculations or through the prescriptive method found in the International Residential Code (IRC), Section P2904. NFPA 13D, Chapter 5, specifies allowable piping materials. Although the standard allows for the use of copper, steel, or thermoplastic piping, the most economical piping material that should be used in single-family homes is thermoplastic. The available options for thermoplastic piping are chloro-polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX). CPVC, shown in Figure 5, is the most commonly used piping material in residential applications and is relatively low cost. It is important to use the correct type of glue for CPVC connections to ensure that all joints and fittings meet the pressure requirements listed in NFPA 13D. PEX has also become increasingly popular because it is flexible and is easier to install with fewer connections; however, connecting PEX tubing involves crimping or clamping the connections which requires special tools that can be difficult to maneuver in tight spaces.

    A roughed-in fire sprinkler head (left) and fire sprinkler riser (right) both use CPVC piping, a cost-effective choice for residential sprinkler systems.
    Figure 5. A roughed-in fire sprinkler head (left) and fire sprinkler riser (right) both use CPVC piping, a cost-effective choice for residential sprinkler systems (Source: The Home Sprinkler Coalition 2021).

    Insulating Pipes and Air Sealing Ceiling Penetrations

    Sprinkler piping is often located in vented attics and the sprinkler heads therefore represent penetrations through the ceiling separating the conditioned space of the home from the unconditioned space of the attic, which could provide opportunities for heat loss into the attic. If possible, limit building envelope penetrations by running sprinkler piping inside interior walls, using sidewall sprinklers, or running sprinkler piping in soffits within the building envelope. Where sprinkler piping must be run outside of the building envelope, such as in an unheated attic, ensure that the piping is appropriately insulated using the arrangements listed in NFPA 13D Appendix A.

    Common methods for insulating fire sprinkler piping in an unheated attic are the “box-in” and “tenting” methods, shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7. In the box-in method, boxes are made to cover the pipes out of drywall and/or rigid foam that is sealed with caulk or tape at all seams and sealed to the drywall of the ceiling with tape, caulk, or canned spray foam. With the tenting method, foil- or paper-backed insulation is tented over the piping, then stapled to the trusses or rafters (paper side down) and taped or caulked to the ceiling deck. The box-in method is a more robust method for bringing the fire sprinkler pipe within the building envelope. Another method is to install the sprinklers in a dropped ceiling chase or soffit that is below the ceiling which serves as a continuous air barrier above the irrigation sprinkler piping.

    Some types of sprinklers are designed to pop open and cannot be caulked. Make sure to check the sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions for your specific model of sprinklers. When installing concealed sprinklers, make sure that the cover plates and escutcheons fit snugly against the wall or ceiling to reduce the likelihood that future homeowners will try to caulk them to the drywall. In general, air sealing should not be performed around sprinkler heads. Instead, it is preferable to bring the fire sprinkler pipe within the building envelope through construction of a dropped soffit or a sealed chase as shown in Figures 6 and 7, where air sealing occurs above the piping or around the chase and not at the interface of the sprinkler head and the drywall.

    CPVC fire sprinkler piping insulated using the box-in method.
    Figure 6. CPVC fire sprinkler piping insulated using the box-in method. (Source: Merrifield 2011). 
    CPVC fire sprinkler piping is insulated using the tent method, as described in NFPA 13D.
    Figure 7. CPVC fire sprinkler piping is insulated using the tent method, as described in NFPA 13D (Source: Merrifield 2011). 

     

    Success
    Ensuring Success

    Check state and local codes regarding design and installation of residential fire sprinkler systems. Historically, fire sprinkler requirements for residential fire sprinkler systems have been met with resistance due to perceived high installation costs or homebuilder liability concerns. Some concerns have been raised about their installation in remote and Wildland Urban Interface areas where firefighter crews might not reach a home to shut off the water once the sprinklers have been activated possibly causing more water damage than fire damage to a home.

    Currently California, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. require fire sprinklers in new, one- and two-family homes and have adopted provisions of NFPA 13D. There are 29 states that prohibit statewide or local adoptions of fire sprinkler requirements, and 19 states that allow local adoption of fire sprinkler requirements for new, one- and two-family homes. In addition to these state codes, many municipalities, especially those located in the wildland urban interface (WUI), have adopted municipal code ordinances regarding fire safety, in some cases more restrictive than those adopted by the state.

    Verify fire-related code requirements with the municipality having jurisdiction over your building site. 

    Climate
    Climate

    The U.S. Forest Service offers a website with interactive maps and charts to help communities explore wildfire risk in their location.

    The National Fire Protection Association provides a website with information regarding state- and province-based fire sprinkler coalitions. Check the map in Figure 1 to see if the state where the home is located has an active fire sprinkler coalition. These fire coalitions provide useful resources with a local focus.

    Map showing North American states and provinces with active National Fire Protection Association fire sprinkler coalitions
    Figure 1. Map showing North American states and provinces with active National Fire Protection Association fire sprinkler coalitions (Source: NFPA 2020).

     

    Training
    Presentations
    Videos
    Compliance

    Compliance

    The Compliance tab contains both program and code information. Code language is excerpted and summarized below. For exact code language, refer to the applicable code, which may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

    Consult the local or state fire agency or qualified building code specialist about state and local codes, standards, requirements, and amendments related to automatic fire sprinkler systems.

     

    2009201220152018, and 2021 International Energy Code (IECC)

    Table R402.4.1.1 Air Barrier and Insulation Installation. Concealed sprinklers. Where required to be sealed, concealed fire sprinklers shall only be sealed in a manner that is recommended by the manufacturer. Caulking or other adhesive sealants shall not be used to fill voids between the fire sprinkler cover plates and walls or ceilings.

    Retrofit:  2009, 2012, 2015, 2018,  and 2021 IECC

    Section R101.4.3 (in 2009 and 2012). Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs shall conform to the provisions of this code, without requiring the unaltered portions of the existing building to comply with this code. (See code for additional requirements and exceptions.)

    Chapter 5 (in 2015, 2018, 2021). The provisions of this chapter shall control the alteration, repair, addition, and change of occupancy of existing buildings and structures.

     

    2009, 2012, 20152018, and 2021 International Residential Code (IRC)

    R313.2 One- and two-family dwellings automatic fire systems. An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be installed in one- and two-family dwellings. Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required for additions or alterations to existing buildings that are not already provided with an automatic residential sprinkler system.
    R313.2.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential fire sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section P2904 or NFPA 13D.

    Retrofit:  2009, 2012, 2015, 2018,  and 2021 IRC

    Section R102.7.1 Additions, alterations, or repairs. Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs shall conform to the provisions of this code, without requiring the unaltered portions of the existing building to comply with the requirements of this code, unless otherwise stated. (See code for additional requirements and exceptions.)

    Appendix J regulates the repair, renovation, alteration, and reconstruction of existing buildings and is intended to encourage their continued safe use.

     

    2009, 2012, 2015, 2018 and 2021 International Wildland Urban Interface Code (IWUIC)

    Section 602.1 An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in all occupancies in new buildings required to meet the requirements for Class 1 ignition-resistant construction in Chapter 5. The installation of the automatic sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with nationally recognized standards. 

     

    2009, 2012, 2015, and 2018 International Fire Code (IFC)

    102.5 Application of residential code. Where structures are designed and constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code, the provisions of this code shall apply as follows:
    1. Construction and design provisions of this code pertaining to the exterior of the structure shall apply including, but not limited to, premises identification, fire apparatus access, and water supplies. Where interior or exterior systems or devices are installed, construction permits required by Section 105.7 shall apply.
    2. Administrative, operational, and maintenance provisions of this code shall apply.

     

    2019 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

    2019 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) NFPA 13D Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems

    2019 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) NFPA 13R Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Low-Rise Residential Occupancies 

    The National Fire Protection Agency produces three versions of its standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems: NFPA 13, 13R and 13D.

    NFPA 13 covers buildings that are “fully sprinklered” with protection of the entire building including occupied and unoccupied spaces (attics, closets, etc.) to provide for protection of both human life and the facility and its assets. Buildings covered by NFPA 13 include nursing homes, hospital patient rooms, fraternity and sorority houses, and multistory residential.

    NFPA 13R covers buildings that are “partially sprinklered” to provide for protection of life (enough time for occupants to escape the building if there is a fire) and a moderate level of building protection. In general, it allows for the elimination of sprinklers in attics, closets, and bathrooms; allows for a lower water discharge demand from the sprinkler system, leading to smaller pipe sizes; and allows for a shorter duration of water supply than NFPA 13, so if the water is supplied by storage tanks, a smaller tank can be used. Buildings covered by NFPA 13 include hotels and motels, apartment buildings, and larger single-family homes.

    NFPA 13D covers typical single-family and two-family dwellings and manufactured homes. It requires sprinklers in living spaces only. The standard does not require sprinklers in small bathrooms, closets, pantries, garages, attics or unoccupied concealed spaces.

    The criteria in this standard are based on full-scale fire tests of rooms containing typical furnishings found in residential living rooms, kitchens, and bedrooms.

    Retrofit
    Existing Homes

    Scope

    The International Residential Code (IRC) Section R313.2 requires automatic residential fire sprinkler systems to be installed in all new one- and two-family dwellings, but does not require them for additions or alterations to existing buildings that did not already have a fire sprinkler system. As local code may vary from the model code, check with local codes to see if fire sprinklers are required in a retrofit of an existing home.

    Description

    If adding fire suppression sprinklers to an existing home is required by local code for a renovation or addition or is desired by the homeowner, follow the guidance provided in this guide for new construction. Note that any sprinkler piping that is installed in unconditioned space, such as a vented attic, must be insulated and air sealed as described in the Description tab and in NFPA 13D, Appendix A Chapter 9, CPVC Fire Sprinkler Piping 2021 and Sprinkler Insulation: A Literature Review 2011.

    More

    More Info.

    Access to some references may require purchase from the publisher. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

    References and Resources*
    Author(s)
    Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
    Organization(s)
    HFSC
    Publication Date
    Description
    Website containing educational and marketing resources for residential fire sprinklers.
    Author(s)
    Marty Ahrens
    Organization(s)
    NFPA
    Publication Date
    Description
    A report examining the presence, reliability, effectiveness, and impact of sprinkler systems in structure fires.
    Author(s)
    Newport Partners
    Organization(s)
    The Fire Protection Research Foundation
    Publication Date
    Description
    Report assessing the costs of home fire sprinkler systems.
    Author(s)
    National Fire Protection Association
    Organization(s)
    NFPA
    Publication Date
    Description
    A webpage containing information on state-based fire sprinkler coalitions.
    Author(s)
    Prescott Fire Department
    Organization(s)
    Prescott Fire Department,
    City of Prescott Arizona
    Publication Date
    Description
    A guideline containing fire sprinkler insulation requirements from the Prescott, Arizona Fire Department.
    Author(s)
    Merrifield Brian
    Organization(s)
    Fire Protection Research Foundation,
    FPRF,
    National Fire Protection Association,
    NFPA
    Publication Date
    Description
    Literature review from NFPA on the use of insulation to protect the piping in home fire sprinkler systems from freezing conditions.
    Author(s)
    Ford Carmel
    Organization(s)
    National Association of Home Builders,
    NAHB
    Publication Date
    Description
    Document describing the methodology and results from 2009 to 2019 of the National Association of Home Builders' Construction Cost survey, which collects information from builders on the various components that go into the sales price of a typical single-family home.
    Author(s)
    U.S. Department of Agriculture,
    U.S. Forest Service
    Organization(s)
    USDA,
    USFS
    Publication Date
    Description
    A website created by the U.S. Forest Service, containing interactive maps, charts and resources to help communities explore their risk to wildfires.
    *For non-dated media, such as websites, the date listed is the date accessed.
    Contributors to this Guide

    The following authors and organizations contributed to the content in this Guide.

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Last Updated

    Mobile Field Kit

    The Building America Field Kit allows you to save items to your profile for review or use on-site.

    Sign Up  or  Log In

    Did you find this information helpful?

    If you have questions and/or would like a reply to this feedback, please include your e-mail address in the message.
    This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.