Bathroom Exhaust

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Description

Regardless of what kind of ventilation system you have for the rest of the house, exhaust fans are recommended in the bathrooms to remove excess moisture, cleaning chemical fumes, etc. The fan should be ducted to exhaust outside of the home, not into the attic. Operable windows are a nice feature but they should not be relied on for consistent bathroom ventilation.

To fulfill the local exhaust airflow requirements of ASHRAE 62.2, bathroom fans can be run intermittently (occupant controlled) or continuously. Intermittent fans should have a flow rate of 50 cfm or more and continuous fans should have a flow rate of 20 cfm. If the fan is set to run continuously, the sone rating should be 1.0 or less. ENERGY STAR-rated exhaust fans should be selected that have low sone ratings, low power draw, and in some cases multiple speeds for spot exhaust and continuous ventilation.

Although a single-point exhaust fan such as a kitchen fan could be used to provide code-required whole-house ventilation, this strategy is not recommended. For more on whole house ventilation strategies, see Supply-Only Ventilation, Exhaust-Only Ventilation, Semi-Balanced Ventilation, and Balanced Ventilation – HRVS and ERVs.

How to Install Bathroom Exhaust Fans

  1. Determine the appropriate fan size for your application. For a continuous rate of >= 20 cfm, ENERGY STAR recommends selecting a fan that provides more than 50 cfm to pull the required amount. For an intermittent rate of >= 50 cfm, ENERGY STAR recommends selecting a fan with a rating of 70 cfm. Choose ENERGY STAR-rated fans for energy efficiency and low noise level.
  2. Install the fan in the bathroom ceiling in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The fan’s exhaust port should point in the direction of the termination point. Cut openings in the ceiling for the fan no bigger than needed to fit the fan. After installation, air seal between the fan housing and the drywall with caulk.
  3. Connect the exhaust duct to the fan port with mechanical fasteners and/or mastic. Choose a smooth-surfaced duct such as galvanized sheet metal or PVC that is the size specified by the manufacturer. If aluminum flex duct is used, it should be stretched tight to avoid unnecessary sagging and to minimize friction. Ideally the duct should be the same diameter as the exit opening on the fan housing.
  4. Vent the fan exhaust directly to the outside, not into an attic or crawlspace. The duct should be supported so that it hangs as straight as possible and positioned so that it has as few bends as possible. At a minimum, the first three feet of duct extending from the fan exhaust port should lay straight; an installation with a 90-degree elbow immediately adjacent to the fan exhaust port can cause air to flow back into the fan. If bends are necessary, gradual bends are preferred to 90-degree elbows for optimum flow and less airflow noise. The duct should be routed so that it is out of the way of other ducts and equipment in the attic and care should be taken not to crush or kink the duct during or after installation. If possible, the duct terminal should be located to the side wall slightly below the fan, allowing the duct to slope down and away from the fan housing to direct any condensation away from the fan. Duct seams should be sealed with mastic or metal tape. To minimize condensation, insulate the duct.

    For better performance, make duct runs as straight as possible

    Figure 1 - For better performance, make duct runs as straight as possible. If a bend is necessary, allow two to three feet of straight duct run from the fan exhaust port to the first elbow in the duct run.  Reference

    Exhaust pipe should be made of smooth, rigid duct and any bends should be gradual, not sharp

    Figure 2 - Elbows in exhaust duct should be gradual rather than 90 degree turns if possible. Smooth rigid duct is preferred over ridged flex duct  Reference

  5. Locate the exhaust duct outlet vent at the exterior of the home at least 10 ft from any air inlet. The wall cap should include a damper that closes when the fan is not exhausting. The wall cap may come with a screen or grille to keep out birds and animals. The exhaust air should not be directed onto a walkway.

    Bathroom exhaust fan can vent out through the wall or up through the roof

    Figure 3 - Bathroom exhaust fan can vent out through the wall or up through the roof  Reference

  6. Cover the fan housing with an insulated, airtight box. Make the box from rigid foam. Tape the seams with housewrap tape. Use caulk or spray foam to seal the box to the ceiling drywall and to seal around the exhaust pipe. Cover the box with attic insulation.

    Air seal and insulate around the exhaust fan with a rigid foam box

    Figure 4 - Create a box from rigid foam to cover the exhaust fan housing. Tape the seams and caulk the edges of the box to the ceiling drywall to make the box airtight. Cover the box and the duct with attic insulation Reference

Ensuring Success

Visually inspect the fan for proper installation as follows:

  1. Ensure that the fan exhausts outside, not into the attic; that it is set to exhaust, not recirculate; that any dampers on the outside termination are able to open freely; and that packing tape is removed.
  2. Confirm that any openings made in the ceiling for the fan or exhaust duct are properly air sealed and that the exhaust duct is sealed to the fan housing with both mechanical fasteners and mastic for flex duct and mechanical fasteners and mastic or spray foam for rigid duct.
  3. Check the sone rating; ASHRAE 62.2-2007 requires 3 sones or less for intermittent (occupant-controlled) kitchen or bath exhaust fans or 1.0 sone or less for continuous fans.
  4. See the “compliance” tab for calculating exhaust rates to meet ASHRAE 62.2 requirements and ENERGY STAR guidelines for intermittent and continuous operation, as well as IRC requirements on fan size and openable windows. If the bathroom fan will be used as the primary means for meeting the code-required ventilation, calculate the ventilation rate required based on the size of the home, and ensure that the fan’s tested flow rate will meet this requirement.
  5. Test the fan’s operation to determine the flow rate using a flow hood, flow grid, anemometer (in accordance with AABC, NEBB, or ASHRAE procedures), or other equivalent method. Bathroom fans are typically rated by how many cubic feet per minute the fan will exhaust in a factory setting. Duct work, termination choices, and installation may decrease the measured cubic feet per minute below the factory-rated value. To ensure the installed fan exhausts the correct amount of cubic feet per minute, EPA recommends the HVAC contractor install a fan with a rating higher than the required measured amount.

Scope

Bathroom exhausts directly to the outdoors at ≥ 20 CFM continuous rate or ≥ 50 CFM intermittent rate

Local Mechanical Exhaust

Continuous rate is >= 20 CFM

  1.  ENERGY STAR recommends selecting a fan with a rating of 50 CFM to pull at least 20 CFM when measured.

Intermittent rate is >= 50 CFM

  1. ENERGY STAR recommends selecting a fan with a rating of 70 CFM to pull at least 50 CFM when measured.

Continuous and Intermittent

  1. Install the fan to directly exhaust to the outdoors through a termination with little or no restriction.
  2. Seal all seams, gaps, holes, and connections to exterior of all ventilation ducts, preferably with mastic.
  3. ENERGY STAR recommends completing a visual inspection of proper fan installation, prior to testing the fan.

* All bathroom fans must comply with the continuous or intermittent rate.

ENERGY STAR Notes:

The whole-house ventilation air flow and local exhaust air flows shall be measured by the Rater using a flow hood, flow grid, anemometer (in accordance with AABC, NEBB, or ASHRAE procedures), or substantially equivalent method.

Per ASHRAE 62.2-2010, an exhaust system is one or more fans that remove air from the building, causing outdoor air to enter by ventilation inlets or normal leakage paths through the building envelope. Examples include bath exhaust fans, range hoods, and clothes dryers.

Per ASHRAE 62.2-2010, a bathroom is any room containing a bathtub, shower, spa, or similar source of moisture.

An intermittent mechanical exhaust system, where provided, shall be designed to operate as needed by the occupant. Control devices shall not impede occupant control in intermittent systems.

Bathroom Fan Rating

A bathroom is any room containing a bathtub, shower, spa, or similar source of moisture. 

Bathroom fans are typically rated by how many cubic feet per minute (CFM) the fan will exhaust in a factory setting. Duct work, termination choices and installation may decrease the measured CFM below the factory-rated CFM.

To ensure the installed fan exhausts the correct amount of CFM, ENERGY STAR recommends installing a fan with a rating higher than the required measured amount.

Additional Information

For additional information and specific duct testing protocols please refer to RESNET Chapter 8 (Standard for Performance Testing and Work Scope: Enclosure and Air Distribution Leakage Testing).

Bathroom Fan Testing Tips

  • Test the bathroom fan after completing a visual inspection of proper fan installation.
  • Seal bath fans to the drywall, including conditioned areas. This will ensure air is exhausted from the bathroom and not the plenum.
  • Use a flow hood, flow grid, anemometer (in accordance with AABC, NEBB, or ASHRAE procedures) or other equivalent method to test the fan.
  • Verify that the control devices of the bathroom fan do not impede occupant control.

If the fan is not pulling enough:

  • Verify the exterior termination is operating properly.
  • Verify the fan damper swings freely and packing tape is removed.

Training

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Presentations

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Compliance

ENERGY STAR Version 3, (Rev. 07)

HVAC System Quality Installation Rater Checklist, Local Mechanical Exhaust. In each kitchen and bathroom, a system shall be installed that exhausts directly to the outdoors and meets the following Rater-measured airflow standard: Bathroom: Continuous Rate = >= 20 CFM; Intermittent rate = >= 50 CFM. The whole-house ventilation air flow and local exhaust air flows shall be measured by the Rater using a flow hood, flow grid, anemometer (in accordance with AABC, NEBB or ASHRAE procedures), or substantially equivalent method. Per ASHRAE 62.2-2010, an exhaust system is one or more fans that remove air from the building, causing outdoor air to enter by ventilation air inlets or normal leakage paths through the building envelope (e.g., bath exhaust fans, range hoods, clothes dryers). Per ASHRAE 62.2-2010, a bathroom is any room containing a bathtub, shower, spa, or similar source of moisture. 

DOE Challenge Home

Exhibit 1: Mandatory Requirements. All installed bathroom ventilation and ceiling fans are ENERGY STAR qualified. Certified under ENERGY STAR Qualified Homes Version 3. EPA Indoor airPLUS Verification Checklist.

American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineers (ASHRAE)

ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings for purchase at the link above. The standard provides minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality in low-rise residential buildings.

2009 IECC

Section 403.5 Mechanical ventilation (Mandatory). Automatic or gravity dampers are installed on all outdoor air intakes and exhausts.

2009 IRC

Section M1507.3 Ventilation rate. Bathrooms-toilet rooms to have mechanical exhaust capacity of 50 cfm intermittent or 20 cfm continuous.*

2012 IECC

Table R403.5.1 Mechanical Ventilation System Fan Efficacy. Ventilation fans satisfy the following efficacy criteria*:

  • Bath-/utility room with rated cfm >= 10 > and < 90: 1.4 cfm/watt.
  • Bath-/utility room with rated minimum cfm >= 90: 2.8 cfm/watt.

2012 IRC

Section M1507.4 Local exhaust rates. Bathrooms-toilet rooms to have mechanical exhaust capacity of 50 cfm intermittent or 20 cfm continuous.*

* Due to Copyright restrictions, exact code text is not provided. For specific code text, refer to the applicable code.

More Info.

Case Studies

  1. Author(s): PNNL
    Organization(s): PNNL
    Publication Date: September 2010

    Case study about new home construction in the hot-humid climate, part of a project building 100 new homes after hurricane Katrina.

References and Resources*

  1. Author(s): ASHRAE
    Organization(s): ASHRAE
    Publication Date: January 2013

    Standard defining the roles of and minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality in low-rise residential buildings.

  2. Author(s): DOE
    Organization(s): DOE
    Publication Date: June 2013

    Standard requirements for DOE's Challenge Home national program certification.

  3. Author(s): EPA
    Organization(s): EPA
    Publication Date: June 2013

    Standard document containing the rater checklists and national program requirements for ENERGY STAR Certified Homes, Version 3 (Rev. 7).

  4. Author(s): Lstiburek
    Organization(s): BSC
    Publication Date: January 2010

    Fact sheet providing detailed information about air sealing attics.

Last Updated: 08/15/2013

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