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Library

This library contains research reports produced by the Building America program and other building science resources used to support this Solution Center. The materials cover both new construction and existing homes. Use the search box and/or the filters to explore hundreds of residential building resources. Access to some references not produced by Building America may require purchase from the publisher. Documents are listed alphabetically. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

Author(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: January, 2011

Standard covering equipment sizing loads for single-family-detached homes, small multi-unit structures, condo­miniums, town houses and manufactured homes.

Author(s): Dentz, Conlin, Holloway, Podorson, Varshney
Organization(s): ARIES, Levy Partnership
Publication Date: March, 2014

In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings....

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2010

This standard defines the roles of and minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality in single-family and multi-family low-rise residential buildings of three stories or less above grade.

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2013

This standard defines the roles of and minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality in single-family and multi-family low-rise residential buildings of three stories or less above grade.

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2013

Standard defining the roles of and minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality in low-rise residential buildings.

Author(s): Lyons, Moore, Thompson
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Newport Ventures
Publication Date: August, 2013

Report summarizing commissioning, short-term testing, utility bill data analysis, and results of on-site monitoring of a deep energy retrofit.

Author(s): Wytrykowska, Ueno, Van Straaten
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: September, 2012

Report describing findings from a multifamily test home focusing on the combination of energy measures that are feasible, affordable and suitable for multifamily construction in cold climates.

Author(s): U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Organization(s): U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Publication Date: October, 2014

This is a guide for establishing smoke-free policies in public housing and multifamily properties.

Author(s): Flothow
Organization(s): Energy Efficiency for All, Steven Winter Associates
Publication Date: November, 2015

Report describing strategies to improve the aging steam heating systems in New York City to improve energy efficiency, reduce oil and gas usage, and cut maintenance costs.

Author(s): Aldrich, Williamson
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: November, 2014

Research report anayzing the results of a large retrofit project, turining an old school into near zero energy consumption apartments in Greenfield MA.

Author(s): Chasar, Martin
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC
Publication Date: April, 2013

Report demonstrating how the initiative achieves Building America (BA) goals of 30%-50% energy savings in multifamily dwellings in the hot-humid climate zone.

Author(s): ADM Associates, Texas A&M University, FSEC, University of Nebraska, LBNL
Organization(s): California Energy Commission
Publication Date: March, 2007

Research project addressing low-cost options that reduce monthly energy costs and improve the quality of life by enhancing comfort levels in low-income homes.

Author(s): Farley, Ruch
Organization(s): PARR, CNT Energy
Publication Date: September, 2013

Report exploring feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25% source energy savings.

Author(s): Rudd
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation
Publication Date: September, 2014

Report analyzing results in crawlspace retrofits in multifamily buildings.

Author(s): Maxwell, Berger, Zuluaga
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: July, 2014

Report outlining research that helps inform best practices for air sealing multi-family buildings in the Northeast.

Author(s): Moriarta
Organization(s): Home Energy Magazine
Publication Date: July, 2008
Journal article describing energy and cost savings potential from air sealing multifamily town homes.
Author(s): Stephenson, Roberts, Butler, Kim
Organization(s): NAHB Research Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Southface Energy Institute
Publication Date: December, 2012

Report outlining the energy upgrade package implemented in Ft. Benning, GA, Indianhead Townhomes project and the findings of the Southface Energy Institutes post-renovation analysis.

Author(s): Zoeller, Slattery, Grab
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: August, 2013

Report about development of effective strategies to reduce the overall building energy use in line with Building America goals in this modestly priced market rate project.

Author(s): Karr
Organization(s): Washington State University Extension Energy Program
Publication Date: March, 2011

Factsheet describing the uses and benefits of ground-source heat pumps for affordable housing, assisted living, dorms and hotels.

Author(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Organization(s): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Publication Date: August, 2011

This manual is designed for state and local healthy homes programs that are working to reduce secondhand smoke exposure in multiunit housing. The manual provides field-tested strategies, recommendations, best practices, and tools. 

Author(s): Dentz, Henderson
Organization(s): ARIES, Levy Partnership
Publication Date: April, 2012

Report evaluating the relative effectiveness of various control and distribution strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance in existing low-rise multifamily buildings

Author(s): Springer, German
Organization(s): ARBI, Davis Energy Group

Report on on lessons learned from building one multifamily home to the Zero Energy Ready Home program requirements.

Author(s): Otis, Maxwell
Organization(s): CARB, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: June, 2012

Document providing an understanding of the importance of the different types of multifamily building attics and their unique challenges, and outlines strategies and materials used in air sealing them.

Author(s): Dentz, Podorson, Varshney
Organization(s): ARIES, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Levy Partnership
Publication Date: May, 2014

This report investigates whether mini-split heat pumps can live up to their potential for one market segment: multifamily retrofits.

Author(s): Ueno, Lstiburek, Bergey
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: December, 2012

Research study examining the performance of existing multifamily ventilation central systems and explored alternative solutions in retrofit situations.

Author(s): Gordon, Howard, Kunkle, Lubliner, Auer, Clegg
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: December, 2012

Report demonstrating cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort.

Author(s): Faakye, Arena, Griffiths
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: July, 2013

Research study exploring a test method measuring air leakage between units through common surfaces and air infiltration across exterior, noncommon surfaces of the enclosure.

Author(s): Dentz, Conlin, Podorson, Alaigh
Organization(s): ARIES, Levy Partnership
Publication Date: June, 2014

Report presenting ways public housing authorities (PHAs) can develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staff in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies.

Author(s): Brozyna
Organization(s): IBACOS, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: August, 2012

Report describing modification of model specifications to include guidance on energy efficiency measures is one approach that developers such as Mercy Housing of Denver, Colorado, are using to support their project teams.

Author(s): Ueno, Kerrigan, Wytrykowska, Van Straaten
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation
Publication Date: August, 2013

Research study about a high performance retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums, all affordable housing.

Author(s): City of Philadelphia
Organization(s): City of Philadelphia
Publication Date: May, 2011

Code for construction and rehabilitation of single-family houses and small multi-family properties in the City of Philadelphia.

Author(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Organization(s): NREL
Publication Date: June, 2017

Standard Work Specifications (SWS) are a major component of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and define the minimum requirements to ensure that the work performed during home energy upgrades is effective, durable, and safe.

Author(s): Northeastern IPM Center
Organization(s): Northeastern IPM Center
Publication Date: January, 2018

Website providing information on all types of pest management for multi-family housing.

Case study on exhaust ventilation and corresponding outdoor air intake strategies implemented in high-performance new-construction multifamily buildings.
Author(s): Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University
Organization(s): Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University
Publication Date: June, 2010

Even as the worst housing market correction in more than 60 years appeared to turn a corner in 2009, the fallout from sharply lower home prices and high unemployment continued.

Author(s): German, Bell, Dakin, Hoeschele
Organization(s): ARBI, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: June, 2014

Report assessing the performance and cost-effectiveness of a zero net energy community project in Davis, CA.

Author(s): Aldrich
Organization(s): CARB, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: August, 2012

Report describing the design and construction of a highly energy efficient community of ten duplexes in Greenfield, Massachusetts.