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Library

This library contains research reports produced by the Building America program and other building science resources used to support this Solution Center. The materials cover both new construction and existing homes. Use the search box and/or the filters to explore hundreds of residential building resources. Access to some references not produced by Building America may require purchase from the publisher. Documents are listed alphabetically. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

Author(s): International Code Council
Organization(s): ICC
Publication Date: April, 2011

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date mechanical code addressing the design and installation of mechanical systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Mechanical Code®, in this 2009 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the...

Author(s): International Code Council
Organization(s): ICC
Publication Date: May, 2014

Standard addressing the design and installation of mechanical systems through requirements emphasizing performance, public health, and safety.

Author(s): International Code Council
Organization(s): ICC
Publication Date: August, 2017

Standard addressing the design and installation of mechanical systems through requirements emphasizing performance, public health, and safety.

Author(s): Springer, Dakin, Backman
Organization(s): ARBI, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: July, 2012

Research study estimating potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and identifying equipment requirements, costs, and barriers.

Author(s): Beach, Dickson, Grisolia, Poerschke, Rapport
Organization(s): IBACOS
Publication Date: August, 2017

This report describes an air distribution system composed of a series of uniformly-sized ducts that terminate in rooms throughout the home and return to a central manifold, similar in fashion to a “home-run” cross-linked polyethylene plumbing system. With a well-designed manifold, each duct receives an equal static pressure...

Author(s): Logue, Turner, Walker, Singer
Organization(s): LBNL
Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sectors energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy...
Author(s): Associated Air Barrier Council
Organization(s): Associated Air Barrier Council
Publication Date: January, 2002
Standards book discussing changes, additions and enhancements over the 5th edition of the AABC National Standards for Total System Balance.
Author(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: January, 2011

Standard covering equipment sizing loads for single-family-detached homes, small multi-unit structures, condo­miniums, town houses and manufactured homes.

Author(s): Rutkowski
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: December, 2015
The manual covers residential zoning issues - multiple, single-zone, and central multi-zone systems - and includes advice on working with homeowners to adapt the heating or cooling system design to meet modern home design features.
Author(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: April, 2013

Standard covering sizing strategies for all types of cooling and heating equipment, as well as how to use comprehensive manufacturer’s performance data on sensible, latent, or heating capacity for various operating conditions. 

Author(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: May, 2018

Technical manual from ACCA outlining correct methods for residential zoning.

Author(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: July, 2014

This Standard establishes the minimum requirements to evaluate a residence with regards to energy efficiency, water conservation, occupant comfort, and indoor air quality.

Author(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: January, 2013

Standard providing nationally recognized, manufacturer-endorsed set of inspection tasks for HVAC maintenance.

Author(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Organization(s): Air Conditioning Contractors of America
Publication Date: January, 2015

Standard providing a universally accepted definition for quality installation for residential and commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning applications.

Publication Date: January, 2016

Document detailing the requirements, roles, and obligations for participants in an organized effort, ensuring that HVAC installations comply with the ANSI/ACCA 5 QI – 2010 (HVAC Quality Installation Specification) QI Standard.

Author(s): National Air Duct Cleaners Association
Organization(s): National Air Duct Cleaners Association
Publication Date: January, 2013
Standard providing industry-backed information for assessing new and existing HVAC systems, evaluating and verifying the cleanliness of HVAC system components, preventing job related hazards and guiding the cleaning and restoration of HVAC systems to a specific level of cleanliness.
Author(s): Air Diffusion Council
Organization(s): Air Diffusion Council
Publication Date: January, 2013
Standard for use and reference by designers, architects, engineers, contractors, installers and users for evaluating, selecting, specifying and properly installing flexible duct in heating and air conditioning systems.
Author(s): Air Diffusion Council
Organization(s): Air Diffusion Council
Publication Date: January, 2013
Standard that sets forth the specific methods of testing flexible air ducts used for indoor comfort heating, ventilating and air conditioning applications.
Author(s): Natural Resources Canada
Organization(s): Natural Resources Canada
Publication Date: April, 2014
Web resource with information for consumers about air source heat pumps.
Author(s): ANSI, AHRI
Organization(s): ANSI, AHRI
Publication Date: January, 2015

Standard 680 establishes definitions, classifications, test requirements, data requirements, ratings, operating requirements, marking and nameplate data and conformance conditions for residential air filter equipment.

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: December, 2013
Standard 55 specifies conditions for acceptable thermal environments and is intended for use in design, operation, and commissioning of buildings and other occupied spaces.
Author(s): RESNET
Organization(s): International Code Council
Publication Date: February, 2016

This Standard provides a consistent, uniform methodology for evaluating the airtightness of building envelopes and heating and cooling air ducts and the air flows of mechanical ventilation systems.

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2017

Guidebook covering basic principles and data used in the HVAC&R industry.

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2017

Standard establishing a test procedure for evaluating the performance of air-cleaning devices as a function of particle size.

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2016

ASHRAE Standard 62.1 sets specifications and measures for ventilation system design and indoor air quality.

Author(s): ASHRAE
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2013

Standard defining the roles of and minimum requirements for mechanical and natural ventilation systems and the building envelope intended to provide acceptable indoor air quality in low-rise residential buildings.

Author(s): American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Organization(s): American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Publication Date: January, 2017

Code establishing the rules of safety relating only to pressure integrity for the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels during construction.

Author(s): Rapp, Less, Singer, Stratton, Wray
Organization(s): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

The exhaust from residential combustion appliances contains air pollutants and high levels of moisture that must be conveyed to the outdoors to maintain acceptable indoor quality.

Author(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: November, 2004

Brochure intended to provide readers with a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems.

Author(s): Air-Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute
Organization(s): Air-Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute
Publication Date: April, 2009
This directory contains the I=B=R Ratings for cast-iron, steel, aluminum and copper boilers, baseboard and finned tube radiation, indirect-fired water heaters, effective as of the date of this publication.
Author(s): Gilbride, Baechler, Hefty, Hand, Love
Organization(s): Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publication Date: August, 2011

Report providing information about energy-efficient heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) equipment options to help homeowners cut their energy use, reduce their carbon footprint, and increase their homes comfort, health, and safety.

Author(s): Building Science Corporation
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation
Publication Date: May, 2009

Report about ventilation system design, including central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, made up of a 6-inch outdoor air intake duct connected to the return side of the air handler with a fan cycling control to make sure the fan runs a programmed minimum amount of time.

Author(s): Carpenter, Schumacher
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Case study characterization of framing factors for wood-framed low-rise residential buildings.
Author(s): Gifford
Organization(s): American Boiler Manufacturers Association
Publication Date: January, 2004
Part 2 of an article discussing how to maximize two-pipe steam systems.
Author(s): National Air Duct Cleaners Association
Organization(s): National Air Duct Cleaners Association
Publication Date: January, 2013
Manual showing duct cleaning contractors how to identify the different types of insulated air ducts, how to open each type for access by cleaning equipment and personnel, how to close and seal openings after cleaning.
Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: August, 2012

IECC code note explaining new fan efficacy requirements, along with how to determine which fans are affected by the new fan requirements.

Author(s): Schoenbauer, Bohac, Huelman
Organization(s): NorthernSTAR, University of Minnesota
Publication Date: July, 2016

Report describing combined space- and water-heating (combi) systems using a high-efficiency direct-vent burner. 

Author(s): American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Organization(s): American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Publication Date: January, 2012

Standard covering requirements for the assembly, installation, maintenance, and operation of controls and safety devices on automatically operated boilers directly fired with gas, oil, gas-oil, or electricity, having fuel input ratings under 12,500,000 Btu/hr.

Author(s): Cummings, Withers, Kono
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC

Report on variable-capacity air conditioning and heat pump units.

Author(s): Woods, Kozubal
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: October, 2013

Report presenting a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning.

Author(s): McIlvaine, Beal, Fairey
Organization(s): FSEC
Publication Date: October, 2014
This study focuses on the design, construction, and performance of the interior chase approach as implemented by five different builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida
Author(s): Less, Walker, Tang
Organization(s): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

The main principle of smart ventilation used in this study is to shift ventilation from time periods with large indoor-outdoor temperature differences, to periods where these differences are smaller, and their energy impacts are expected to be less.

Author(s): AHRI
Organization(s): AHRI
Publication Date: January, 2012
Online database with efficiency information about residential HVAC systems and commercial refrigeration equipment.
Author(s): North American Insulation Manufacturers Association
Organization(s): North American Insulation Manufacturers Association
Publication Date: January, 2010
Information sheet with HVAC duct insulation, testing, maintenance and performance information.
Author(s): Building Science Corporation
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation
Publication Date: May, 2009

Brochure with details on HVAC duct air sealing.

Author(s): Roth, Sehgal, Akers
Organization(s): FCSES
Publication Date: March, 2013
Research report with results from field tests in two homes in Austin, Texas, from October 2011 to June 2012 to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps
Author(s): Building Science Corporation
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation
Publication Date: May, 2009

Brochure with information about ducts in conditioned space.

Author(s): Turner, Walker
Organization(s): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality implications of residential ventilation cooling in all US IECC climate zones.

Author(s): Vieira, Parker, Gu, Wichers
Organization(s): FSEC
Publication Date: January, 2009
Document comparing simulation results from a modified version of the EnergyGauge program to include various HVAC runtime strategies.
Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2012

Online reference containing general information about geothermal heat pumps.

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