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Library

This library contains research reports produced by the Building America program and other building science resources used to support this Solution Center. The materials cover both new construction and existing homes. Use the search box and/or the filters to explore hundreds of residential building resources. Access to some references not produced by Building America may require purchase from the publisher. Documents are listed alphabetically. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

Author(s): Burch
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: June, 2012

Document outlining the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

Author(s): Ries, Walters, Dwiantoro
Organization(s): BEEHA, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: January, 2013

Report describing methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110-unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.

Author(s): Lyons, Moore, Thompson
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Newport Ventures
Publication Date: August, 2013

Report summarizing commissioning, short-term testing, utility bill data analysis, and results of on-site monitoring of a deep energy retrofit.

Author(s): Acker, Klein
Organization(s): Home Energy
Publication Date: October, 2006
Article describing how demand plumbing systems send cold water back to the water heater until hot water arrives at the sink, shower or other fixture where it is needed.
Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2007

Case study describing solar thermal and photovoltaic systems in new construction.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2007

Case study describing solar thermal and photovoltaic systems in new construction.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2007

Case study describing solar thermal and photovoltaic systems in new construction.

Author(s): Air-Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute
Organization(s): Air-Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute
Publication Date: April, 2009
This directory contains the I=B=R Ratings for cast-iron, steel, aluminum and copper boilers, baseboard and finned tube radiation, indirect-fired water heaters, effective as of the date of this publication.
Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2012

Website with consumer and contractor information about building codes and regulations for solar water heating systems.

Author(s): Schoenbauer, Bohac, Huelman
Organization(s): NorthernSTAR, University of Minnesota
Publication Date: July, 2016

Report describing combined space- and water-heating (combi) systems using a high-efficiency direct-vent burner. 

Author(s): Maguire, Fang, Wilson
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: May, 2013

Research report providing a comparison of the most common residential water heating technologies to determine energy-efficient and cost-effective water heating technologies are when subjected to a variety of typical operating conditions.

Author(s): Maguire, Earle, Booten, Hancock
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Mountain Energy Partnership
Publication Date: October, 2011

Report about a hybrid condensing water heater (thermal efficiency = 0.973, energy factor = 0.95) installed in an occupied home in Sacramento, California, and monitored for one year to determine the actual in situ efficiency.

Author(s): Aldrich, Williamson
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: November, 2014

Research report anayzing the results of a large retrofit project, turining an old school into near zero energy consumption apartments in Greenfield MA.

Author(s): Aldrich, Vijayakumar
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: May, 2006

Report describing the monitored long-term performance of two solar domestic water heating systems in northern climates.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: February, 2018

Website from the U.S. Department of Energy providing consumers with information on saving energy and using renewable energy technologies.  

Author(s): Maguire, Burch, Merrigan, Ong
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: July, 2013

Report investigating performance and energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: January, 2012

Fact sheet describing principles of insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines as an effective way to prevent energy loss.

Author(s): Hoeschele, Weitzel
Organization(s): ARBI, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: May, 2013

The main objective of this expert meeting was to bring together a group of experts intimately involved with issues related to assessing the performance of residential high efficiency water heating systems.

Author(s): Rudd, Ueno, Bergey, Osser
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: June, 2012

Expert meeting describing meeting details for recommendations for applying water heaters in combination space and domestic water heating systems.

Author(s): Shapiro, Puttagunta
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: August, 2013

Research study evaluating 14 heat pump water heaters, attempting to provide publically available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products .

Author(s): ANSI
Organization(s): ANSI
Publication Date: April, 2017

This Standard applies to storage water heaters, instantaneous water heaters, and circulating water heaters including booster water heaters.

Author(s): Aldrich
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: March, 2013

Brochure on specifications for solar thermal systems.

Author(s): Sparn, Hudon, Earle, Booten, Tabares-Velasco, Barker, Hancock
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Mountain Energy Partnership
Publication Date: October, 2013

Report about a Greenbuilt house, which works with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy-efficiency retrofit measures.

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: January, 2012

Brochure providing consumer information about heat pump water heaters.

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: June, 2012

Guide providing detailed selection and installation instructions for heat pump water heaters.

Author(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Organization(s): NREL
Publication Date: December, 2003

Provides consumers with general information on solar water heating systems and how to select a contractor.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: January, 2009

Case study of new home construction in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climate zones.

Author(s): Baechler, Gilbride, Ruiz, Steward, Love
Organization(s): Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publication Date: June, 2007

Best Practices document providing an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices.

Author(s): Heoschele, Weitzel
Organization(s): ARBI, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: November, 2012

Report on a project that enhanced the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer.

Author(s): Burch, Maguire
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: August, 2013

Journal article presenting modeling of residential water heaters via dynamic simulation models to provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption.

Author(s): Kingston, Scott
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Gas Technology Institute
Publication Date: March, 2013

Report summarizing results of testing emerging combo water heating technologies under controlled laboratory operations, that differentiate the performance of the various packaged equipment configurations being offered.

Author(s): Hudon, Merrigan, Burch, Maguire
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: August, 2012

Report identifying the target market for solar water heaters and potential pathways and cost/performance targets that must be met for these systems to realize large energy savings.

Author(s): Pettit, Neuhauser, Gates
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation
Publication Date: July, 2013

Guidebook providing useful examples of high performance retrofit techniques for the building enclosure of wood frame residential construction in a cold and somewhat wet climate.

Author(s): Rudd
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: August, 2012

Document pertaining to design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings.

Author(s): Brozyna, Rapport
Organization(s): IBACOS, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: September, 2012

Document developed to help residential builders and retrofitters transition from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

Author(s): NMIC
Organization(s): NMIC
Publication Date: April, 2012
Web resource that lays out the pre-work considerations, methods and finishes for installing mechanical insulation.
Author(s): Burch, Shoukas, Brandemuhl, Krarti
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, University of Colorado
Publication Date: October, 2014

This paper discusses model validation using data from three thermosiphon systems. 

Author(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Organization(s): NREL
Publication Date: October, 2014
Author(s): Dentz, Varshney, Henderson
Organization(s): ARIES, Levy Partnership
Publication Date: October, 2013

Report providing information to researchers, utility program managers, and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort.

Author(s): Butcher
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: December, 2011
Article investigating how a linear input/output relationship can be used as a simple model of the performance of a combination hydronic heating system over heating only, DHW only, and combined loads.
Author(s): Liaukus
Organization(s): BARA
Publication Date: December, 2014

Research project aimed to verify whether homes in the New Jersey HPwES program achieved 30% source energy savings, and if so, what measures were implemented to achieve them.

Author(s): Stetcher, Allison
Organization(s): IBACOS, NREL
Publication Date: November, 2012
Report discussing instrumentation methods and field operation characteristics of two GSHPs in test houses, including a comparison between the manufacturers listed COP values and the COPs calculated from field data.
Author(s): Alliance for Water Efficiency
Organization(s): Alliance for Water Efficiency
Publication Date: July, 2014
Website with information and research about residential hot water distribution systems.
Author(s): North Carolina Solar Center
Organization(s): North Carolina Solar Center
Publication Date: September, 2014
Brochure with information on residential solar hot water systems.
Author(s): Schoenbauer, Bohac, Huelman, Olson, Hewett
Organization(s): NorthernSTAR, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: October, 2012

Report presenting results of a laboratory experiment studying combi systems as a mode to eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances.

Author(s): Schoenbauer, Bohac, McAlpine, Hewett
Organization(s): NorthernSTAR, University of Minnesota
Publication Date: June, 2017

This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water (DHW) and forced air space heating. Called "combi" systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's...

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: January, 2010

Information sheet describing tankless hot water heating systems in existing homes.

Author(s): Burch, Huggins, Long, Thornton
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, SRCC, TESS
Publication Date: June, 2013

Document discussing changes in testing the annual performance ratings for solar water heaters.

Author(s): Colon, Parker
Organization(s): FSEC
Publication Date: June, 2010
Report comparing the performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period.
Author(s): Colon, Parker
Organization(s): BA-PIRC
Publication Date: March, 2013
Document about testing of seven water heating systems in the How Water Systems laboratory in central Florida.

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