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Library

This library contains research reports produced by the Building America program and other building science resources used to support this Solution Center. The materials cover both new construction and existing homes. Use the search box and/or the filters to explore hundreds of residential building resources. Access to some references not produced by Building America may require purchase from the publisher. Documents are listed alphabetically. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

Author(s): Walker, Stratton
Organization(s): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Report on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future air flow evaluations.

Author(s): McIlvaine, Beal
Organization(s): FSEC
Publication Date: June, 2014

Report describing as-found interior platform return plenums, the magnitude of their contribution to the total amount of duct leakage, and techniques and results of retrofits executed by the HVAC trade during equipment replacement.

Author(s): Brand, Yee, Baker
Organization(s): PARR
Publication Date: August, 2013
Report examining the impacts that common installation practices and age- induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE.
Author(s): Winkler
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: March, 2012

Presentation on Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling.

Author(s): Holliday, Martin
Organization(s): Green Building Advisor
Publication Date: March, 2003

Article in Energy Design Update describing the cost and savings benefits of electronically commutated motors (ECMs) for HVAC equipment.

Author(s): Cutler, Winkler, Kruis, Christensen, Brandemuehl
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, University of Colorado
Publication Date: January, 2013

Report presenting improved air conditioner (AC) and heat pump (HP) modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools.

Author(s): Dentz, Henderson
Organization(s): ARIES, Levy Partnership
Publication Date: April, 2012

Report evaluating the relative effectiveness of various control and distribution strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance in existing low-rise multifamily buildings

Author(s): Raymer, Moyer
Organization(s): Tamarack Technologies, Florida Solar Energy Center
Publication Date: July, 2006

Correcting pressure imbalances in your HVAC system can result in a healthier, more efficient home.

Author(s): Gifford
Organization(s): American Boiler Manufacturers Association
Publication Date: June, 2003
Article describing how to use radiator inlet orifices optimize two-pipe steam heating systems.
Author(s): Butler
Organization(s): Energy Vanguard
Publication Date: January, 2011
Article discussing the advantages of using heat pumps instead of furnaces in high-performance homes.
Author(s): Wilson, Christensen
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: March, 2012

Presentation about heat pump water heater modeling using EnergyPlus.

Author(s): Karr
Organization(s): Washington State University Extension Energy Program
Publication Date: March, 2011

Factsheet describing the uses and benefits of ground-source heat pumps for affordable housing, assisted living, dorms and hotels.

Author(s): Im, Liu, Monk
Organization(s): Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publication Date: March, 2011

Website article discussing the economics of ground source heat pumps.

Author(s): Mittereder, Poerschke
Organization(s): IBACOS
Publication Date: November, 2013
Report presenting a cold climate project examining and alternative approach to ground source heat pump ground loop design.
Author(s): Sparn, Hudon, Earle, Booten, Tabares-Velasco, Barker, Hancock
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Mountain Energy Partnership
Publication Date: October, 2013

Report about a Greenbuilt house, which works with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy-efficiency retrofit measures.

Author(s): Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Organization(s): ORNL
Publication Date: May, 2014

Website with general information about geothermal (ground-source) heat pumps (GSP's).

Author(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Organization(s): EPA
Publication Date: January, 2012

Website with information about ENERGY STAR criteria for geothermal heat pumps.

Author(s): Hughes
Organization(s): Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publication Date: December, 2008

Report investigating the status of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry and technology in the United States, assembling GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate adoption of GHPs.

Author(s): Xing, Cullin, Fisher, Shonder, Im
Organization(s): Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publication Date: December, 2011

Article describing a numerical model that can be used to size foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems.

Author(s): Williamson, Aldrich
Organization(s): CARB
Report on field monitoring of inverter-driven ASHPs in Zone 6-climate homes.
Author(s): Williamson, Aldrich
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA

Report on field monitoring of inverter-driven ASHPs in cold-climate homes.

Author(s): Shapiro, Puttagunta
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: August, 2013

Research study evaluating 14 heat pump water heaters, attempting to provide publically available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products .

Author(s): Christensen, Fang, Tomerlin, Winkler, Hancock
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Mountain Energy Partnership
Publication Date: March, 2011

Information sheet with an analysis of mini split heat pump systems.

Author(s): Sachs, Tiefenbeck, Duvier, Qin, Cheney, Akers, Roth
Organization(s): Fraunhofer CSE, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: December, 2012

Research study evaluating a low-cost and scalable way to reduce heating energy consumption using the energy-saving features of programmable thermostats (i.e., automatic daytime and nighttime setbacks).

Author(s): Cullin, Xing, Lee, Spitler, Fisher
Organization(s): Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publication Date: January, 2012

Study characterizing how foundation heat exchangers (FHXs) used in residential  ground source heat pump systems represent a potential cost savings due to their lesser first cost over other types of heat exchangers.

Author(s): Cullin, Xing, Lee, Spitler, Fisher
Organization(s): ASHRAE
Publication Date: January, 2012
Journal article presenting a preliminary map detailing the feasibility of foundation heat exchangers in the US.
Author(s): Herk, Poerschke
Organization(s): IBACOS
Publication Date: April, 2015
The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings.
Author(s): Arena
Organization(s): CARB, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: January, 2013

Expert meeting held to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors.

Author(s): Stecher
Organization(s): IBACOS, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: July, 2011

Expert meeting held to discuss simplified space conditioning systems in low load homes, including the relationship between advanced thermal enclosures, space conditioning systems and comfort.

Author(s): Brand
Organization(s): PARR, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Gas Technology Institute
Publication Date: March, 2012

Expert meeting identifying installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

Author(s): Mohalley
Organization(s): Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration (ACHR) News
Publication Date: December, 2016

Article describing benefits of ECM motors and how they can be installed as retrofit motors in HVAC equipment.

Author(s): Architectural Energy Corporation
Organization(s): Architectural Energy Corporation
Publication Date: November, 2011
Article describing RESNET guidance on evaporative coolers.
Author(s): Rowley, Kerr, Brank
Organization(s): PARR, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Gas Technology Institute, Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, CNT Energy, Future Energy Enterprises
Publication Date: October, 2012

Document reviewing of the current northern Illinois energy efficiency retrofit programs.

Author(s): Martin, Withers, McIlvaine, Chasar, Beal
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC
Publication Date: February, 2018

This report evaluates the performance of variable-capacity comfort systems, with a focus on inverter-driven, variable-capacity systems, as well as proposed system enhancements.

Author(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Organization(s): EPA
Publication Date: November, 2015

This report is designed to meet ASHRAE 62.2-2010/2013 and ANSI/ACCA’s 5 QI-2015 protocol, thereby improving the performance of HVAC equipment in new homes when compared to homes built to minimum code.

Author(s): Yee, Baker, Brand, Wells
Organization(s): PARR, Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
Publication Date: August, 2013

Report using pre- and post-system upgrade data to analyze the energy savings associated with Iowas HVAC SAVE program for space heating.

Author(s): Cummings, Withers
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC
Publication Date: December, 2011

Research study describing experiments run in an unoccupied 1600 ft2 house to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump.

Author(s): Maguire, Burch, Merrigan, Ong
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: July, 2013

Report investigating performance and energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2012

Online reference containing general information about geothermal heat pumps.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: February, 2018

Website from the U.S. Department of Energy providing consumers with information on saving energy and using renewable energy technologies.  

Author(s): Chasar, Martin
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC
Publication Date: April, 2013

Report demonstrating how the initiative achieves Building America (BA) goals of 30%-50% energy savings in multifamily dwellings in the hot-humid climate zone.

Author(s): Roth, Sehgal, Akers
Organization(s): FCSES
Publication Date: March, 2013
Research report with results from field tests in two homes in Austin, Texas, from October 2011 to June 2012 to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps
Author(s): NEEA
Organization(s): NEEA
Publication Date: June, 2014
Online resource about ductless heating & cooling systems for installers, utilities, manufacturers and distributors.
Author(s): AHRI
Organization(s): AHRI
Publication Date: January, 2012
Online database with efficiency information about residential HVAC systems and commercial refrigeration equipment.
Author(s): Less, Walker, Tang
Organization(s): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

The main principle of smart ventilation used in this study is to shift ventilation from time periods with large indoor-outdoor temperature differences, to periods where these differences are smaller, and their energy impacts are expected to be less.

Author(s): Less, Walker
Organization(s): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Publication Date: January, 2015

Part of a larger LBNL report (Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center), the Source Energy and Carbon Decisions chapter helps users carefully assess the impacts of switching from gas to electricity for heating end-uses, using source energy and/or carbon emissions assessments.

Author(s): Cummings, Withers, Kono
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Florida Solar Energy Center, FSEC

Report on variable-capacity air conditioning and heat pump units.

Author(s): Aldrich, Williamson
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: November, 2014

Research report anayzing the results of a large retrofit project, turining an old school into near zero energy consumption apartments in Greenfield MA.

Author(s): Mallay
Organization(s): HIRL
Report on heating and cooling air-distribution ducts that are insulated, installed close to the ceiling in a vented attic and covered with attic insulation to minimize energy loss.
Author(s): Mallay
Organization(s): Home Innovation Research Labs

Report on heating and cooling air-distribution ducts that are insulated, installed close to the ceiling in a vented attic and covered with attic insulation to minimize energy loss.

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