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Library

This library contains research reports produced by the Building America program and other building science resources used to support this Solution Center. The materials cover both new construction and existing homes. Use the search box and/or the filters to explore hundreds of residential building resources. Access to some references not produced by Building America may require purchase from the publisher. Documents are listed alphabetically. While we continually update our database, links may have changed since posting. Please contact our webmaster if you find broken links.

Author(s): Burch
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: June, 2012

Document outlining the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

Author(s): Ries, Walters, Dwiantoro
Organization(s): BEEHA, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: January, 2013

Report describing methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110-unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.

Author(s): Acker, Klein
Organization(s): Home Energy
Publication Date: October, 2006
Article describing how demand plumbing systems send cold water back to the water heater until hot water arrives at the sink, shower or other fixture where it is needed.
Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2007

Case study describing solar thermal and photovoltaic systems in new construction.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2007

Case study describing solar thermal and photovoltaic systems in new construction.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: June, 2007

Case study describing solar thermal and photovoltaic systems in new construction.

Author(s): Schoenbauer, Bohac, Huelman
Organization(s): NorthernSTAR, University of Minnesota
Publication Date: July, 2016

Report describing combined space- and water-heating (combi) systems using a high-efficiency direct-vent burner. 

Author(s): Maguire, Fang, Wilson
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: May, 2013

Research report providing a comparison of the most common residential water heating technologies to determine energy-efficient and cost-effective water heating technologies are when subjected to a variety of typical operating conditions.

Author(s): Maguire, Earle, Booten, Hancock
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Mountain Energy Partnership
Publication Date: October, 2011

Report about a hybrid condensing water heater (thermal efficiency = 0.973, energy factor = 0.95) installed in an occupied home in Sacramento, California, and monitored for one year to determine the actual in situ efficiency.

Author(s): Aldrich, Vijayakumar
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: May, 2006

Report describing the monitored long-term performance of two solar domestic water heating systems in northern climates.

Author(s): Maguire, Burch, Merrigan, Ong
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: July, 2013

Report investigating performance and energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters.

Author(s): Hoeschele, Weitzel
Organization(s): ARBI, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: May, 2013

The main objective of this expert meeting was to bring together a group of experts intimately involved with issues related to assessing the performance of residential high efficiency water heating systems.

Author(s): Rudd, Ueno, Bergey, Osser
Organization(s): Building Science Corporation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: June, 2012

Expert meeting describing meeting details for recommendations for applying water heaters in combination space and domestic water heating systems.

Author(s): Shapiro, Puttagunta
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: August, 2013

Research study evaluating 14 heat pump water heaters, attempting to provide publically available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products .

Author(s): ANSI
Organization(s): ANSI
Publication Date: April, 2017

This Standard applies to storage water heaters, instantaneous water heaters, and circulating water heaters including booster water heaters.

Author(s): Norton, Hancock, Barker, Reeves
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Mountain Energy Partnership, Partnership for Resource Conservation
Publication Date: May, 2005

Report detailing the monitored and modeled performance of a solar home outside of Washington DC.

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: January, 2012

Brochure providing consumer information about heat pump water heaters.

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: June, 2012

Guide providing detailed selection and installation instructions for heat pump water heaters.

Author(s): Wilson, Christensen
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: March, 2012

Presentation about heat pump water heater modeling using EnergyPlus.

Author(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Organization(s): NREL
Publication Date: December, 2003

Provides consumers with general information on solar water heating systems and how to select a contractor.

Author(s): Baechler, Gilbride, Ruiz, Steward, Love
Organization(s): Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Publication Date: June, 2007

Best Practices document providing an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices.

Author(s): Heoschele, Weitzel
Organization(s): ARBI, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: November, 2012

Report on a project that enhanced the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer.

Author(s): Hoeschele
Organization(s): Home Energy Magazine
Publication Date: March, 2005

Article describing the factors that can lead to inefficient hot water distribution systems in homes.

Author(s): Burch, Maguire
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: August, 2013

Journal article presenting modeling of residential water heaters via dynamic simulation models to provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption.

Author(s): Kingston, Scott
Organization(s): BA-PIRC, Gas Technology Institute
Publication Date: March, 2013

Report summarizing results of testing emerging combo water heating technologies under controlled laboratory operations, that differentiate the performance of the various packaged equipment configurations being offered.

Author(s): Sparn, Hudon, Christensen
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: September, 2011

Report presenting lab evaluation of five heat pump water heaters available in the US market today.

Author(s): Hudon, Merrigan, Burch, Maguire
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: August, 2012

Report identifying the target market for solar water heaters and potential pathways and cost/performance targets that must be met for these systems to realize large energy savings.

Author(s): Schoenbauer, Bohac, Huelman
Organization(s): NorthernSTAR, University of Minnesota
Publication Date: March, 2017

Report describing the installation and operation of forced-air heating and domestic hot water combi systems in residential homes. 

Author(s): Shapiro, Puttagunta, Owens
Organization(s): CARB, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: February, 2012

Document with evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

Author(s): Brozyna, Rapport
Organization(s): IBACOS, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: September, 2012

Document developed to help residential builders and retrofitters transition from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

Author(s): Alliance for Water Efficiency
Organization(s): Alliance for Water Efficiency
Publication Date: July, 2014
Website with information and research about residential hot water distribution systems.
Author(s): North Carolina Solar Center
Organization(s): North Carolina Solar Center
Publication Date: September, 2014
Brochure with information on residential solar hot water systems.
Author(s): Schoenbauer, Bohac, McAlpine, Hewett
Organization(s): NorthernSTAR, University of Minnesota
Publication Date: June, 2017

This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water (DHW) and forced air space heating. Called "combi" systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's...

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: February, 2010

Information sheet describing tankless hot water heating systems in existing homes.

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: January, 2010

Information sheet describing solar hot water systems in existing homes.

Author(s): Steven Winter Associates
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: January, 2010

Information sheet describing tankless hot water heating systems in existing homes.

Author(s): Burch, Huggins, Long, Thornton
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory, SRCC, TESS
Publication Date: June, 2013

Document discussing changes in testing the annual performance ratings for solar water heaters.

Author(s): Colon, Parker
Organization(s): FSEC
Publication Date: June, 2010
Report comparing the performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period.
Author(s): Colon, Parker
Organization(s): BA-PIRC
Publication Date: March, 2013
Document about testing of seven water heating systems in the How Water Systems laboratory in central Florida.
Author(s): NEEA
Organization(s): NEEA
Publication Date: May, 2014
Website providing consumers with resources to find, select and install heat pump water heaters.
Author(s): Aldrich
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: September, 2009

Report providing a synopsis of a project to evaluate the performance of a roof-integrated solar water heating system.

Author(s): Department of Energy
Organization(s): DOE
Publication Date: May, 2012

Website describing how solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home.

Author(s): Energy Trust of Oregon
Organization(s): Energy Trust of Oregon
Publication Date: August, 2013

Outlines the minimum criteria for a solar water heating system installed by a Solar Water Heating Program trade ally under Energy Trust of Oregon’s Solar Water Heating Program.

Author(s): Hoeschele, Springer, German, Staller, Zhang
Organization(s): ARBI, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: August, 2012

Report about proper water heater selection developed to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

Author(s): Rheem
Organization(s): Rheem
Publication Date: December, 2012

Information for properly sizing gas lines for use with tankless water heaters and other gas appliances.

Author(s): Maguire, Sparn, Hudon, Christensen
Organization(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Publication Date: January, 2012

Document about laboratory testing of five integrated heat pump water heaters (HPWH).

Author(s): Puttagunta, Aldrich, Owens, Vijayakumar
Organization(s): CARB, Steven Winter Associates, SWA
Publication Date: July, 2007

Report presenting results from whole-house monitoring efforts in hope that they may be useful for other moving towards zero energy homes.

Author(s): Springer, Seitzler, Backman, Weitzel
Organization(s): ARBI, Davis Energy Group

Report on energy use for domestic water heating in multifamily buildings.

Author(s): Aldrich, Walsh, Swift
Organization(s): Steven Winter Associates, SWA, CARB, Western Massachusettes Electric Company, Northeast Utilities
Publication Date: July, 2006

Report summarizing results from a study in Massachusetts that aimed to upgrade existing homes and incorporate solar thermal systems.

Author(s): Backman, Hoeschele
Organization(s): ARBI, Davis Energy Group
Publication Date: July, 2013

Research study comparing TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against laboratory pipe heat loss test data and detailed field monitoring data.

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